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KOVSE SERVAWT'S DZRBCTORY.
A MONITOR FOR PRIVATE FAMILIES :
HINTS ON THE ARRANGEMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF
WITH GENERAL RULES FOR
SETTING OUT TABLES AND SIDEBOARDS
IN FIRST order;
THE ART OF VTAITIZTG
nr ALL ITS branches; and likewise how to conduct
LARGE AND SMALL PARTIES
WITH GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR PLACING ON TABLE
ALL KINDS OF JOINTS, FISH, FOWL, &c.
FULL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CLEANING
PLATE, BRASS, STEEL, GLASS, MAHOGANY j
ALL KINDS OF PATENT AND COMMON LAMPS:
ON SERVANTS' BEHAVIOUR TO THEIR EMPLOYERS;
AND UPWARDS OF
XOO VARIOUS ikSrs USEFXTIi RBCEIFTSy
FOR THE USE OF HOUSE SERVANTS;
AND IDENTICALLY MADE
TO SUIT THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF FAMILIES
IN THE UNITED STATES,
By ROBERT ROBERTS.
rS. 3 HIT SI. 7 ABVICH TO COOKS
AND HEADS OF FAMILIES;
AND COMPLETE DIRECTIONS HOW TO BURN
MUNROE AND FRANCIS, 128 WASHINGTON-STRBBT,
CHARLES S. FRANCIS, 252 BROADWAT.
DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS, TO WIT :
District Clerk's Office.
Be it remembered, that on the ninth day of March, A. D. 1837,
in the fifty-first year of the Independence of the United States of
America, Munroe &, Francis, of the said district, have deposited in
this Office, the Title of a Book, the right whereof they claim as Pro
prietors, in the words following, to wit :
The HOUSE SERVANT'S DIRECTORY, or a Monitor for
Private Families : comprising hints on the arrangement and perform-
ance of Servants' Work, with general rules for setting out Tables and
Sideboards in first order. The art of Wailing in all its branches; and
likewise how to conduct Large and Small Parties with order; with
feneral directions for placing on Table all kinds of Joints, Fish,
'owl, &c. ; with full instructions for cleaning Plate, Brass, Steel,
Glass, Mahogan}'; and likewise, all kinds of Patent and Common
Lamps: Observations on Servants' Behaviour to their Employers;
and upwards of 100 various and useful Receipts, chiefly compiled for
the use of House Servants, and identically made to suit the Manners
and Customs of Families in the United States. By Robert Roberts.
With friendly Advice to Cooks and Heads of families, and complete
Directions how to burn Lehigh Coal,
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, enti-
tled " An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the
copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of
such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;" and also to an act
entitled, " An act supplementary to an act entitled, an act for the
eucouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and
books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times
therein mentioned ; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of
designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints."
JOHN W. DAVIS, Clerk of the District of Massachusetts,
ADVERTISEMENT OP THE PUBLISHERS.
This valuable Work was written by a servant in
one of the most respectable families in this city, the
demise of whose very honourable head, with deep re-
gret we have to record while penning this advertise-
ment; and we hope it it will be some recommendation
to this useful book, to give an extract of a letter
which we received from the late Hon. Christopher
Gore, a few weeks before his decease.
" I have read the work attentively, and think it may
he of much use. The directions are plain and perspic-
uous ; and many of the recipes I have experienced to
he valuable. Could servants he induced to conforrh to
these directions, their own lives would he more useful^
and the comfort and convenience of families much pro-
moted. Consider me as a subscriber for such number
of copies as six dollars will pay for ; and I think that
many more loould be subscribed for in Boston."
Numerous other recommendations could have been
procured, but this we deem sufficient.
If the public have applauded Dr. Kitchener for im-
proving the minutiae and economy of the larder, what
praise is not due to an humble attempt to amend the
morals and awkwardness of domestics? In school-learn-
ing generally our native servants surpass foreigners, but
in manners, deportment, and a knowledge of the duties
of^heir station, it must be admitted they are considerably
inferiour. To borrow a phrase from the kitchen, our
oboriginal servants need grilling ; they require much in-
struction, and an apprenticeship to the art and faculty of
unbending. Like certain "woollens imported in a raw
state," noticed in a late congressional debate, it is requi-
site, in order to giving them a proper gloss- and finish, to
send them to a " brushing establishment."
a wwarjipwiy, "SBasiVij.
It cannot be denied that many of our servants, whilst
perfectly vvillingto receive their wages, are either unwil-
ling to submit to the powers that be, by fulfilling the du-
ties for which such wages were stipulated, or, from gross
ignorance of domestic concerns, are totally unfit for ser-
vice. An attempt to amend these matters by one from
among their own number deserves, and we hope will
receive the approbation and patronage of all aggrieved,
so far at least as presenting a copy of this work to every
As to the Receipts for expurgating lamps, forks, and
boots, compounding liquids, powders, &c. &:c. given in
this book, although like the author of the Cook's Oracle
we cannot say we have actually eafm each receipt, having
neither the necessary dyspeptic qualifications of the os-
trich, nor the gusto of the Esquimaux or Kamschadale,
yet, being assured by the author that he has himself op-
erated on all of them, and on hundreds of others not
set down because not infallible, we believe they will be
found of essential service, and accordingly recommend
them, when needed, to notice and use.
The publishers have in some sort amended the or-
thography and punctuation ; otherwise the book is copi-
ed from the author's notes " verbatim et literatim."
No apology is necessary for thus presenting it, as the
perceptions of some of its intended readers are a little
obtuse, and it is requisite to give them line upon line,
somewhat in the Dogberry style. Different views of
the same object are taken, to enforce the fact more
strongly on the recollection ; and our author, as a servant,
speaks to the comprehension of his fellow servants, withr
out more diffuseness than answers the intended purpose.
In fine, this book is just such an one as has been long
wanted, emanating from just the right quarter, and writ-.
ten precisely as might be wished. With these few
words of prologue we permit the author to speak for
Boston, March 1, 1827,
Introduction to the House Servant's Directory
The benefit of early rising to servants
On dress suitable for their work
Cleaning boots and shoes - . .
Cleaning knives and forks
Directions for cleaning steel forks -
Trimming and cleaning lamps
Directions for cleaning plate
Cleaning plate with dry plate powder
Cleaning silver and plated articles
Setting up the candles ...
Cleaning polished steel grates
Directions for cleaning mahogany furniture
Hints on taking out stains from mahogany
Brushing and folding gentlemen's clothes
Brushing and cleaning gentlemen's hats
Regulations for the pantry -
Directions for cleaning tea trays -
Washing and cleaning decanters -
Trimming the cruet stand or casters
To clean tea and coffee urns
Mahogany dinner trays
Remarks en the morning's work in winter
Directions for setting out the breakfast table
Regulations for the dinner table
Laying the cloth, &c. ' -
Setting out the dinn'-r table
Setting out the sideboard -
Setting out the side table -
Dinner on the table
Waiting on dinner
The first course removed -
Second course removed •
Placing on the dessert
Preparations for tea and coffee
Carrj'ing round tea and coffee
Observations on supper
Observations on the supper table
Pirections for extinguishing lamps, shutting up the
Address and behaviour to your employers - - 69
Behaviour to your fellow servants - - - - 70
Behaviour of servants at their meals - - - 74
Hints to house servants on their dress - - - 76
Remarks on answering the bells - - - - 78
All the best receipts useful for servants to know - - 80
1. To make the best liquid blacking for boots and shoes - ib.
2. To make boots and shoes water proof - - - ib.
3. Composition to clean furniture - - - - 81
4. Furniture oil for Mahogany, most excellent - - ib.
5. Italian varnish, most superb for furniture - - 82
6. Italian polish to give furniture a brilliant lustre - ib.
7. To take ink stains out of mahogany furniture - - 83
8. An excellent wash for dirty tables, after a party - ib.
9. To take the black off the bright bars of polished steel - 84
10. To polish the bars of a polished steel grate - - ib.
11. The best way to clean a polished steel grate - - 85
12. For the black parts or inner hearth of a grate - ib.
13. Another excellent black mixture for the same - 86
14. A beautiful mixture to clean brass or copper - - ib.
15. To give Britannia metal a brilliant polish - - ib.
16. A beautiful polish for black grates - - - 87
17. To make the best plate powder - - - ib.
18. A most superb way to clean plate - - - 88
19. Another way to make plate powder, by J. R. W. of London ib.
20. To clean any kind of plated articles whatever - 89
21. To clean japanned tea and coffee urns - - 90
22. To preserve iron or steel from rust - - . - ib.
23. To take rust off steel - - - - , ib.
24. To blacken the front of stone chimney pieces - 91
25. An excellent composition to blacken stove grates - ib.
26. To clean mirrors or large looking glasses - - . 92
27. To make a beautiful black varnish - - - , ib.
28. To give silver a beautiful polish - - - > ' ib.
29. An excellent mastick for mending China and glass 98
30. A wash to revive old deeds or other writings - ib.
31. An excellent wash to keep flies from pictures or furniture ib.
32. To remove flies from rooms - - . - 94
33. To render old pictures as fine as new - - ib.
34. A varnish that suits all kinds of pictures and prints - ib.
3,5. To take ink spots out of mahogfan^ ^ ■? ^ 93
36. A most delicious salad sauce, by J. R.W. - - 95
37. A great secret toinix mustard, by H. B. London - ib.
38. To extract oil from boards - - - - 96
39. To colour any kind of liquor - - - ib.
40. To make liquid currant jam of the first quality - 97
41. A secret to remove all kind of spots on silk or cotton ib,
42. To make all kinds of syrups of all kinds of flowers - ib.
43. To make excellent currant jelly - - - 98
44. A most delicious lemonade,to be made a day before wanted ib.
45. Lemonade that has the appearance and flavour of jelly 99
46. To make raspberrj' vinegar, most delicious - ib.
47. To make the best wine vinegar in one hour - 100
48. An excellent preparation for vinegar - - ib.
49. A dry portalile vinegar, or vinaigre en poudre 101
50. To turn good wine into vinegar in three hours - ib.
51. To restore that same wine to its former taste - ib.
62. To correct a bad taste or sourness in wine - - 102
53. To preserve good wine unto the last - - ib-.
54. To recover persons from intoxication - - ib. .
65. To make raspberry,strawberry,cherry and all kind of waters ib.
66. Lemonade water of a most delicious flavour - 103
67. Another excellent lemonade, by R. R. - - ib.
68. To whiten ivory that has been spoiled - - ib.
69. A cooling cinnamon water in hot weather - - 104
60. An excellent good ratifia, by F. N. - - - ib,
61. A strong aniseed water . - . . 105
62. To take off" spots of any sort, from any kind of cloth ib.
63. A great secret against oil spots, &c. - - ib.
64. To restore carpe'o to their first bloom - - 106
€5. To restore tapestries to their former brightness - ib.
66. To revive ihe colour of cloth - - - ib.
67. To take spots out of white cloth, &c. - - 107.
68. A composition of soap that will take out all sorts of spots ib.
69. Turkish cement for joining all metals, glass, china, &c. 108
70. To preserve the brightness of fire arms, &c. '- ib.
71. To remove ink stains from cloth, plaid, silk, worsted,&c. ib.
72. To preserve milk for sea that will keep for six months 109
73. To preserve apples for the year round - - ib.
74. To loosen stoppers that are congealed in decanters 110
76. To take stains out of black cloth, silk, or crape - ib.
76, To know whether a bed is damp or not, when travelling 110
77. To make the best ginger beer
78. To make excellent spruce beer
79. To make a beautiful flavoured punch
80. To cement any kind of broken glass
81. A black varnish for straw or chip hats
82. Blacking for harness that will not injure leather
83. To make a strong paste for paper
84. A water that gilds copper and bronze
85. A wash for gold, silver, silk,or any other kind of embroidery
86. To make iron as beautiful and white as silver
87. To preserve furs or woollen clothes from moths
88. To dye gloves so as to look like York tan
89. To reform those who are given to drink
90. To prevent the breath from smelling, after liquor
91. A wash to give lustre to the face
92. A wash for the hair, most superb
93. Excellent paste for the skin
94. A beautiful corn poultice
95. To make the best corn plaster
96. A safe liquid to turn red hair black -
97. To refine cider for one barrel
98. To clarify strong or table beer, or ale
99. A cheap and wholesome beer - -
100. Excellent jumble beer
101. To make excellent ginger beer, for ten gallons
102. A wash to give a brilliant lustre to plate
103. Water-proof varnish of the first quality
104. Chinese varnish for miniature painting
105. To make a cement for bottles
Directions for putting dishes on table
Directions for placing all kinds of joints, fowls, fish,
Directions for carving
Going to market - - -
How to choose poultry • - "
How to choose fish - - "
A few observations to cooks,' &c.
A word to heads of families
Directions to make a fire of Lehigh coal
Miscellaneous observations ibr the use of housekeepers
How to keep vegetables, meat, bread, &c.
How to keep apples, sweet herbs, &c.
To preserve blankets from moths
&c. on table 121
In the first place, T shall address myself to mj
young friends Joseph and David, as they are now
about entering into gentlemen's service, which they
will find in course of time a very critical station
for them to fulfil in its proper order; therefore I
most sincerely intreat them to practise and study
these few directions and observations, which I have
laid down in the following pages, for their benefit
and instruction, likewise for the benefit of those
families whom they may have the honour to serve.
~ Besides there are many young men who are in
good situations at present, but who oftentimes are
deficient of several of those branches that are
requisite for a perfect servant to understand; I
therefore have a sincere wish to serve all those who
are in that capacity of earning an honest living, and
perhaps are not perfect in the several branches of
their business, which in this station they are expect-
ed to perform without being ordered by the lady
of the family. There are many young men who
live out in families, who, I am sorry to say, do not
know how to begin their work in proper order un>
less being drove by the lady of the family, from
one thing to another, which keeps them continually
in a bustle and their work is never done.
There is no servant that can keep from being in
a state of confusion, that has not a regular rule for
his work, and, on the other hand, how disagreeable
it must be for the lady, who has to tell them every
thing that she wants to be done. It was merely
for this idea, that the author of this took in hand
to laj before the public those general rules and
directions for servants to go by as shall give satis-
faction to their employers, and gain a good repu-
tation for themselves. And it is my most earnest
wish to give to the utmost extent of my power,
every instruction that it requisite for a house
servant to understand.
Now, my young friends, you must consider that
to live in a gentleman's family as a house servant is
a station that will seem wholly different from any
thing, I presume, that ever you have been acquaint-
ed with; this station of life comprises comforts,
privileges, and pleasures, which are to be found in
but few other stations in which you may enter;
and on the other hand, many difficulties, trials of
temper, &c., more perhaps than in any other sta-
tion in which you might enter, in a different state
of life. Therefore, my young friends, when you
hire yourself to a lady or gentleman, your time or
your ability is no longer your own, but your em-
ployer's : therefore they have a claim on them
whenever they choose to call for them: and my
sincere advice to you is, always to study to give
general satisfaction to your employers, and by so
doing you are sure to gain credit for yourself.
Now, Joseph, I am going to make a few obser-
vations to you. — In the first place, my young friend,
the various stations of life are appointed by that
Supreme Being, who is the giver of all goodness ;
therefore every station that he allows us to fulfil,
is useful and honourable in their different degrees :
for instance, we find from history and' holy writ,
that domestic servants have frequently been intrust-
ed with matters of the greatest importance to their
employers. Of this we have a memorable instance
of 3'^our namesake Joseph, who was sold by his
brethren to the Ishmaelites, and bought by Poti-
phar to be his domestic servant, and in this capa-
city Joseph acquitted himself with honesty and in-
tegrity, and his master saw that the Lord was with
him, and that the Lord prospered all that was
about him; and the Lord blessed the Egyptian's
house for Joseph's sake. And he left all that he
had in Joseph's care, and he knew not aught he
had, save the bread that he did eat. — Genesis,
chapter 39th. I might mention in another instance,
the fidelity of Mordecai, who, in his capacity as a
porter to King Ahasuerus, saved that monarch
from the violent hands of his two chamberlains.
Happy,my3'oung friends, are those families that
have servants who study the comfort and welfare
of their employers, and who in return do the same
by them ! The kind admonitions of a good and af-
fectionate mistress or master should always be lis-
tened to with respect and obedience, for the wise
man saith, "As an ear-ring of gold, so is a wise re-
proof upon an obedient ear." — Proverbs xxiv. 12.
In the next place, my young friends, you may per-
haps find a mar^ter or mistress vi'ho may act un-
kindly and unjustly towards you, as Laban did to
Jacob his servant and son-in-law ; but if you do
your duty honestly and faithfully, depend on it that
you will be more happy in your integrity than your
employers can be in their injustice; for it is much
better to be oppressed than to stand in the place
of the oppressor ; for patience is very acceptable
in the sight of God, and in due time will be reward-
ed, because God hath promised that it shall be so;
and when have his promises failed ? Jacob's master
shifted and shuffled him about for twenty years 5
and changed his wages ten different times, yet the
Lord blessed the honest and upright servant, be-
cause he had done that which was just, between
his master and himself. Let those considerations,
my young friends, ever stimulate your minds to
truth and faithfulness, in all your situations through
life, and God will guide and prosper you in all
I know there are many temptations to lead
young men to their ruin ; bul you should be very
cautious of what company you keep. How many
young men in our station of life have come to their
ruin by keeping bad company, and neglecting the
business of their employers; so, my young friends,
I tell ye to beware of all bad habits, such as drink-
ing, gambling, swearing, telling falsehoods, and
ivasting your time when sent out on the business
of your employers ; for this is not your time you
spend, but your employer's, for all your time be-
longs to them.
Remember, my young friends, that your char-»
acter is your whole fortune through life; therefore
you must watch over it incessantly, to keep it from
blemish or stain ; for without character it is useless
lo seek after any respectable service whatever.
Nor can 1 wonder at ladies and gentlemen for the
minute inquiries that they make, in every point, of
a stranger's character. How many instances have
we all heard of masters being robbed by dishonest
servants, and their very existence exposed to immi-
nent danger through evil connexions being formed,
unknown to them, by the inmates of their house.
Remember also, that if you keep company with
those whose character is not of the best, your char-
acter will be censured as much in a manner as
though you were as bad as themselves; for our
good Saint Paul says, that evil communications
corrupt good manners; — for the wicked favour the
wicked, and the good favour the good ; neither
flatter any body, nor suffer any one to flatter thee.
There are a iew more things which I shall cau-
tion you against. Remember always to govern
thy tongue and passions, when thou art angry with
any person; for anger will hurt you more than in-
jury ; and my kind advice to you is, never to be a
slave to passion. JBesides, the law of nature for-
bids us to do injury to one another; God hath giv-
en nothing to man which can be compared to rea-
son and wisdom. Always strive to relieve those who
are in distress, if it is in your power, for the chris-
tian religion not only commands us to help our
friends, but to relieve our greatest enemies; for so
we shall make them our friends ; and shall pro-
mote love, and kindness, peace and good will among
men. It concerns all men to help the miserable.
It is the property of a little mind to flatter the rich ;
for flattery can hurt nobody but whom it pleases.
The desire of riches, glory, and pleasure, are dis-
eases of the mind ; but the power of honesty is so
great, that we should love it even in our greatest
enemy. Virtue procures and preserves friendship,
but vice produceth hatred and quarrels.
Now, my young friends, Joseph and David, I
again for the last time most sincerely intreat you
both to devote your attention to the following pages,
in which I have laid down such rules and regula-
tions for the convenience of your work, and the ful-
filment of your several duties to your employers,
as from my own long experience as a house servant
in some of the first families in England, France,
and America, will prove very beneficial to you and
the public. Not that I mean to offer them as a fix-
ed standard; because almost every family differs
in the execution of their domestic affairs, and it is
the duty of a good servant to do things in that way
that his employers like best. But my idea of pub-
lishing this was for a general guide, and to afford
an insight into matters connected with gentle-
men's families; and I have always found those ar-
rangements, which 1 have prescribed in the follow-
ing pages, very satisfactorj' to those ladies and gen-
tlemen whom I have had the honour to serve.
But it is true, I have had many difficulties and trials
of temper to encounter; but I have always viewed
them as appointed by that Supreme Being whose
goodness is ever bestowed upon those who bear
every trial and difficulty with patience and obedi-
My young friends, I hope you will pardon me
for dwelling so long on these subjects ; but many,
very many, have I known whose prospects in
early life, and all their enjoyments, have been blast-
ed by not attending to good advice. How many
have we seen going about the city, like vagabonds,
diseased in mind and body, and mere outcasts'
from all respectable society^ and a burthen to them-
selves, therefore I sincerely wish that my young
friends may fulfil their several duties with honesty,
integrity, and due respect to their employers and fel-
low servants in general ; and I shall now conclude
my general exhortations for your welfare,and enter
on the particular statements respecting your do-
mestic duties, &c.
THE BENEFIT OF EARLY RISING TO
In order to get through your work in proper
time, you should make it your chief study to rise
early in the morning ; for an hour before the fam-
ily rises is worth more to you than two after they
are up ; for in this time you can get through the
dirtiest part of the work, which you cannot well do
after the family rises ; for then you always are lia-
ble to interruption ; therefore by havinig the dirtiest
part of your work executed, it will prove a very
great comfort to you. As there is nothing more
disagreeable than to run about with dirty hands and
dirty clothes; and this must inevitably be the case
if you defer this part of your work untill every
body is stirring and bustling about.
In the next place, you must have a proper dress
for doing your dirty work in ; for you should never
attempt to wait on the family in the clothes that you
clean your boots, shoes, knives, and lamps in ; for
the dress that you wear to do this part of your
work is not iit to wait in, on ladies and gentlemen.
There is no class of people to whom cleanliness
of person and attire is of more importance than to
servants in genteel families. There are many ser-
vants, whom I have been eye witness to, through
negligence as I must call it, who are a disgrace to
the family that they live with, as well as to them-
selves, by appearing in their dirty clothes at a time
of day that they should have all the dirtiest part of
their work done. Every man that lives in this ca-
pacity should have a sufficient quantity of clothes
to appear aUvaj'^s neat and respectable ; both for
his own credit, and for the credit of the family he
serves ; therefore I shall give you a few hints on
what clothes are suitable for his different work. In
the first place for doing your dirty work, you
should have you a round-a-bout jacket of a dark
colour, with overalls, or loose trowsers, of the same
colour, with a vest, and a cap of some description to
keep the dust from your hair, with a green baize
apron. This is a very suitable habiliment for your
morning's work, that is, before the family come
down to breakfast ; at which time you should have
on a clean shirt collar and cravat, with a clean
round jacket, white linen apron and clean shoes,
with your hair neatly combed out. This is a most
neat and clean attire for serving breakfasts. You
must always make your calculations what time it
may take to get through your v/ork, so as to clean
yourself for breakfast.
In the next place, I shall give you some direc-
tions on your dress for dinner. You should make
it a general rule always to have a good suit of
clothes or two, for attending at dinner, as a servant
should always at this time look neat and tidy, but
not foppish ; what I mean by being foppish is, to
wear a great bunch of seals to your watch, and a
great pin sticking out of your bosom. There is
nothing looks more ridiculous than to see a ser-
vant puff out above bis ability ; it really pu\s me
in mind of the fable of tlie frog and the ox ; there
are many, I know, who never think of lading by a
little sum of money against the time of need, but
spend it all, as fast as they earn it, on fine dress.
I never find fault with a man for dressing neat
and plain ;. but to go beyond extremes is ridicu-
lous; you should always have a good suit for din-
ner, and I shall here give you a few hints on a
suit which is very genteel and becoming. For the
winter season you should have comfortable cloth-
ing, such as a good superfine blue body coat, blue
cassimere trowsers, and a yellow cassimere vest.
This is a very neat and becoming dress to wait on
dinner. You should have at least two or three
suits of light clothes for the summer season ; as
they require to be changed once or twice per
week, if they are light coloured ; but black bom-
bazine is preferable.
CLEANING BOOTS AND SHOES.
As these things are often wanted in a hurry,
therefore you should always have them in readi-
ness, if possible. In this operation, you should al-
ways have good brushes and good blacking. These
are implements that are indispensably necessary ;
without which, no credit will be given to the opera-
tor. In the first place you must remove all the dirt
from your boots or shoes, with your hard brush.
When perfectly clean you must stir upyour black-
ing with a stick, then apply a little on your black
brush, and apply it lightly and smoothly over your
boots or- shoes, then apply your polishing brush
quick and lightly over them, and in a few minutes
you will have a beautiful polish. Should any brown
spots appear, which often do, by not putting on
the blacking'even, then apply your blacking brush
lightly over it a second time, and by this process
you will have a beautiful polish.
When you have ladies' shoes to clean, be very
clean and careful about them. As the linings are
generally white, you must have clean hands, as
the lining is apt to get soiled ; some of these shoes
are cleaned with milk, or the whites of eggs, such
as Morocco, or any kind of glazed leather what-
ever. You must apply the mixture with a sponge,
and lay them before the fire or in the sun to dry ;
then take a soft brush, or a silk handkerchief ;
this will give them a fine polish.
You will find it necessarj'', once in a while, to
grease gentlemen's boots and shoes, especially in
winter time, as the leather is apt to crack with the
wet and cold. You will find, by referring to the
Index, full directions for rendering boots and shoes
perfectly water proof. I therefore proceed to the
next branch of work that is requisite to get out of
the way as early in the morning as possible.
This is another branch of work that requires the
greatest care and attention, as your best knives
generally have to bear the inspection of a numbef
of tasteful eyes during the course of dinner. Eve-
ry servant should see that he has proper utensils
to do his work with, as you cannot expect to do
your work in proper order, if you have not the
means to acconaplish it with. How manj^ good
things are spoilt through bad management of the
man, and the want of convenient tools to work
with. Now, in order to clean knives and forks
well, you must get you a soft pine plank or board :
let it be free from knots, and about six feet long ;
have feet or standers under it, so as to raise it ex-
actly to the height of j^our hips, as this is the pro-
portion for you to bear a regular pressure on
your knives ; then have you a good soft Bristol
brick, and rub it a few times up and down your
board, then take a knife in each hand and stand
opposite the centre of the board, with the backs
of the knives towards the palms of your hands,
then expand your arms, keeping the blades level
on the board, with a quick motion draw your
hands to and from you, frequently looking at the
side you are scouring, to see when clean. Do
not lean too heavy on the blades for fear of break-
ing them, in this mode you will soon grow tracta-
ble, and will shortly be able to clean two dozen
where you would only clean one dozen by taking
one knife at a time, and scouring it with your one
hand. A good set of knives is a valuable thing,
and soon spoiled if not properly taken care of by
the man who has the charge of them. There is
no branch of a servant's business that will gain
more credit for him, from ladies of taste, than
keeping his knives and forks in primo bono; as
they have many spectators.
DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING STEEL FORKS.
The best method of cleaning steel forks, is to
have a deep box or a small keg, the latter is pre-
ferable ; fill it with fine sand and chopped hay or
Straw, either will answer the purpose. To do this
perfectly, put some of your hay into the bottom of
your keg, then put in some sand, and so on, until
it is quite full, then press it close down, and wet it
with water, to keep it damp, as it will have more
effect in taking the black from off the prongs, as
forks often are very black and hard to clean, af-
ter having been used in acids, &c.
When you clean them, take two in each hand,
and stab them several times in the sand, and so
on, until you have them all done ; then have an
old hard brush for the purpose of brushing the
sand from between the prongs ; likewise have a
piece of buckskin, or an old glove, to polish them
off with. This is the true and best method of
cleaning steel forks.
Now 1 shall give you directions for cleaning the
handles of your knives and forks, after the blades
and prongs have all been cleaned. In the first
place take a towel and immerse it in water, then
wring it out all but dry ; hold this towel in your
right hand, with a dry knife towel in the left, to
wipe the blade. When you have them all done,
then give them a light rub over with a dry towel,
including handles, &c. Should you have silver
knives, you may clean them with a little gin and
whiting mixed together, and rubbed over the han-
dles when dry ; if the handles be fluted, you must
brush them with your plate brush, and polish with
your shamois,or,as it is pronounced,shammy leather.
My young friend, 1 have always been thus par-
ticular about my knives and forks, because they
are things that, from the appearance of which, not
only the lady and gentleman of the familj' but ev-
ery onethat sits down at table, forms an opinion of
the cleanliness and good management of the ser-
vant to whose care they are intrusted ; and I sin-
cerely wish thatyou may gain the same approbation.
TRIMMING AND CLEANING LAMPS.
Lamps are now so much in use for drawing-
rooms, dining-rooms, and entries, that it is a very
important part of a servant's work to keep them in
perfect order, so as to show good light. I have
been in some houses where the rooms Were almost
filled with smoke and stench of the oil, and the
glasses of the lamps clouded with dust and smoke,
from the cottons being uneven, or up too high ;
this is a very disagreeable thin^ indeed. But it is
not always a servant's fault, for, unless there is
good oil, and plenty of it allowed to the man, it is
impossible for them to burn well. But it is a man's
fault if they are dirty, or not in good order : and
to remedy this disaster, when you first hire with,
a family, let it be your first object to examine all
your lamps and see that they are all in order ; and
if not, let your employers know immediately, that
is, if they are so bad that you cannot remedy them
yourself, in which case they should be taken to
some mechanist to be put in good order immediately.
When you have them in perfect order, by a little
care and attention you can have very little trouble
with them aftervvards, in giving them a proper and
thorough cleaning, which you should do at least
once a fortnight. When you do this, take two or
three quarts of soft boiling water, put into it two or
three teaspoonsfuU of pearl ashes, then empty
your lamps, and take them all to pieces, observing
where each particle belongs, that you may have
no trouble in putting them together again. When
you have them apart, first fill the cistern, that part
which holds the oil, with this boiling water, and
then shake it well ; don't empty it into the rest of
your water, for it will make it dirty. After this,
if there should be any gum about them, scrape it
off with an old knife, then put it into the tub which
contains the rest of your water, and wash it well
with a piece of old linen, which you must have for
that purpose, with all the other parts likewise.
When you have this all done, wipe them dry and
put them before the fire or in the sun to dry ; and
when you have put them together, give them a
good polish with a fine cloth or silk handkerchief.
You should wash your lamp glasses every
morning, when you are washing your glass or
breakfast things, and put them by in their proper
place until they are wanted.
You should always have a clean towel when you
are lighting your lamps, in order to dust your
lamp glasses before you put them on, as they will
show much better light.
When you are cleaning or trimming your lamps
in the morning, you should be very particular in
emptying the dripper, or that part of the lamp that
holds the droppings ; for if this part is not kept
clean to admit the air, the lamp will never burn
well. You must likewise keep your lamp wicks in
a dry place, this you may do by having a drawer,
which you may keep for this purpose. When you
put on fresh cottons, you must be very careful to
put them on the thimble quite even. And likewise
see that they fit exactly, or the cotton will slip
from ofFthe thimble when you go to raise it. You
should never cut your cottons with scissors ; it is
much the best way to let down your oil, and light
the cotton ; when it burns a little so as to be even,
blow it out, and rub off the snufF with a piece of
paper even with the burner or socket, which con-
tains the wick. You should always use wax ta-
pers for lighting lamps, as paper generally flies
about and makes dirt.
DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING PLATE.
This is another part of a house servant's work,
which requires particular care, and the greatest
attention. Many are the waj^s that are practised
in cleaning 'u, by diflferent servants, every one
thinks his own way the best, and many times the
plate is injured, by different servants, trying differ-
ent experiments on it ; but 1 shall give you, in the
index of this book, two of the best recipes for
making plate powder, that is used by one of the
best silversmiths in London. Before you clean
your plate with this powder, you must wash it
well in a quantity of hot suds, that there be no
grease left on it, for you never can clean plate in
a proper manner if it is greasy. You may use eith-
er of these plate powders wet or dry. If your plate
be very dirty I should recommend it wet. To
mix it wet, take some of your powder and wet it
■with spirits of wine to the consistency of cream,
then take a piece of fine soft sponge that is free
from grit or dirt of any kind whatever, dip it in
this mixture, then squeeze it a little so as you will
not waste it, then apply it quick and even all over
your plate : do not rub over too much at a time,
as it ought to be polished before it gets too dry.
To polish your plate, you should have some soft
linen rags or cloths to rub off the mixture, and
then polish them off with your shammy leather.
When 3'ou have dishes, salvers, salts, and other
articles that are ornamented, that is, etched and
beaded in rough ornamental work, you must have
three good plate brushes ; one must be hard as a
tooth brush, and another something softer, and the
third quite soft. The hard brush is for the rough
■work, and you must recollect never to brush any
silver that is plain, with the hard brush, as you
are sure to scratch it ; the soft brushes are for the
handles of your silver knives and forks, which
generally want brushing.
CLEANING PLATE WITH DRY PLATE
This gives plate a most brilliant lustre, if it is
only well done ; and should be rubbed on with
your naked hand, such as spoons, forks, and des-
sert knives that have silver blades. Tlscse small
articles are cleaned by taking some of the powder
between your finger and thumb, and the longer
you rub, the better it will look ; any article of
your plate that is ornamented, this part may be
rubbed with a piece of leather dipped in the plate
powder, and rubbed quick and hard ; then it
should be brushed with your plate brushes, as in
the other directions, and polished off with your
shammy or wash leather; and I will warrant your
plate to look beautiful.
In the next place you must remember to keep
your plate in a dry place, for if you let any arti-
cles that are only plated, lay about dirty, or in a
damp place, they are sure to rust if plated on steel ;
and if plated on copper, they are sure to canker 3
therefore you should be particular, and not leave
salt or acids of any kind on plated ware, as it is
sure to take off the plate, and leave a stain, and
by rubbing this stain, the plate will rub off; by
•which means the article is perfectly spoiled. I
very well know that there are many articles of this
kind, that are often spoiled through the neglect of
servants, and especially young hands, that hare
had no experience of those things ; therefore, my
young friends, I have here given you such direc-
tions as I trust will enable you to keep your plate
in such order as may give general satisfaction to
your employers, and gain credit for yourselves.
1 shall point out to you the next part of your
work, in the following pages.
CLEANING SILVER AND PLATED CAN-
This is another branch of a house servant's bus-
iness, which should command the greatest attention
and neatness ; as there is nothing that adds more
to the reputation of a servant than to see his can-
dlesticks and candles kept in good order. When
you are about to clean your silver or plated candle-
sticks, j'-ou should be very careful that you do not
scratch them, therefore the best method of clean-
ing them is to take some good hot and strong soap
suds, have a piece of soft flannel, and immerse it
in the water or suds, as hot as you can bear your
hand in it; wash your candlesticks one at a time,
taking great care not to wet the green baize, which
is generally rosined to the foot of the candlesticks.
When washed clean, have some soft towels for that
purpose, and wipe them as quick as you wash
them ; when you have them all finished, take your
shammy leather, with a little whiting dusted over
them with your little muslin bag, which you must
have filled with whiting, for this or other purposes.
When your candlesticks are most sublimely fin-
ished, then you must see to your candles. You
should be very particular to keep your candles in
a clean cool place, as there is nothing that looks
worse, than candles taken into the parlour, when
all over dust or smut. Be careful when putting up
your candles into the candlesticks, that you do not
break them. If they are too large for the sockets,
scrape them down very neat and even, so as to fit ;
and should they be too small, take some paper,
double it and let it be about an inch wide, wrap
this around the end of your candle, so as to fit the
socket, but don't let any of the paper appear
above the candlestick.
DIRECTIONS FOR SETTING UP THE
You should always make it a regular rule to set
up your candles in the morning, and particularly
your chamber candlesticks, as Ihey are often call-
ed for in the course of the da}', to seal letters, &c.
The others should likewise be put up, and in order,
for suppose they are called for in a hurry, and at
a time when you cannot find leisure to get your
candles and set them up? besides, when you are
in a hurry and bustle, you are very apt to break
them, and this causes great delay, and it looks
very bad to see the company^ waiting so long, af-
ter they have been ordered, and it likewise puts
yourself into a state of confusion, &c. Should
you have wax candles for use, be careful and have
your hands clean, or you will soil them. Before
you set them up in candlesticks, you should rub
them with a piece of soft paper, and dip the tops of
the wick in spirits of wine ; this will make them
easy to light.
There are some servants that light the candles
before they put them up ; but I do not approve of
this plan, for you cannot light them and blow them
out again, without causing them to swale or drop
down the sides, which makes them have a bad ap-
pearance. You should have some wax tapers on
purpose to light your candles with, as paper makes
a dirt and flies about the room ; besides it gene-
rally sticks to the candle and causes it to burn
dim. If you have branches around your drawing-
room, and they are to be lit up when there is a
party, you must trim your wax candles most sub-
limely, with some white paper cut in the form of
a rose, to go round the end of the candles, and fit
neatly round the socket of the branch ; this looks
very well at night. You should likewise have a
piece of taper tied on the end of a piece of rattan,
on purpose for lighting them, as it is very awk-
ward to bring steps into the room.
CLEANING POLISHED STEEL GRATES.
These, and polished steel fire irons, are things
that require great care and attention to keep them
bright and free from rust ; I therefore shall give
you some instructions how to keep them in good
order. In the first place, if the bright bars are
dirty and black, use the following mixture.
Take half a pound of soft soap. Put it into one
quart of soft water and boil it down to a pint, then
take some emery and mix in a portion of this li-
quid. Brush off all the soot and dirt from your
grate, and take a piece of thick cloth and dip it
into the mixture, then rub quick and hard, and in
a few minutes you will get off all the black and
dirt. After which take some crocus and wet
it with N. E. rum, or gin, to the consistency of
paint, with a piece of flannel dipped into it, and
rub it quick and hard, until the bars, &;c. be-
come bright, then take some old pieces of linen or
cotton, which you must have for this purpose, and
rub all the mixture clean off. Then take a piece
of leather and some dry rotten stone, and in a few
minutes quick rubbing, you will have a beautiful
polish. If your fire irons should happen to get
rusty, as they often do in damp weather, and es-
pecially when there is no fire in the room, rub
them well over with a piece of flannel dipt in
sweet oil, then shake over them some fresh slacked
lime, and let them lay for twenty-four hours, or
more if necessary, in this state, then take a piece
of flannel and give them a good rubbing ; when
the lime and oil is clean off, then use the crocus
and gin as above directed, and polish off as the
grate. This is a most sublime method of polishing
and cleaning all polished steel articles, &c.
DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING MAHOGANY
Another branch of a house servant's business is
to attend to ckaning the tables, sideboards, mahog-
any chairs, and the parlour doors, if mahogany ;
likewise mahogany trays and any other article of
mahogany that is in the parlour or drawing room.
You should pay a great deal of attention to clean-
ing furniture, to make it look well. If your fur-
niture be of a dark colour, you should be very
careful with what mixture you clean it 5 but you
will find directions for light and dark, referred to
in the Index. When you have cleaned off the dust
from your furniture, and when you put on your
oil, or paste, put but little on at a time, rubbing it
well in, with a piece of flannel. You must put it
on very even, and rub very quick, and in a short
time you will have a beautiful and brilliant polish.
If you should use oil, you must rub as quick as
you possibly can, taking care to rub with the grain
of the wood, with a piece of flannel ; and when
you have it well rubbed, take another piece of
flannel and give it a good rubbing a second time,
then polish off with some fine linen cloths or a silk
handkerchief ; the latter is very good to give it a
good gloss. If you clean your tables with bees-
wax and spirits of turpentine mixed together, this
is as good a thing as I could recommend ; it's a
thing that requires but little rubbing, and is better
for furniture than any other mixture now in use ;
I shall therefore give you directions how to use
this mixture. Take a piece of flannel and apply
6ome of this mixture on it, then rub it quick and
even all over your furniture, and in a short time
you will have a most brilliant polish. Finish off
with an old silk handkerchief. You will find di-
rections for this receipt in the Index.
HINTS ON TAKING OUT STAINS FROM
There are some times that your tables will want
washing; when there has been too much wax,
oil, or paste put on, and not well rubbed off, the
dust settles on it, and it is impossible for you to ^et
them to look well, if this is not washed off with the
following wash ; — Take some warm beer, and a
piece of flannel immersed into it ; with this, wash
off your tables, and recollect to rub them quick and
even ; after you have got your tables quite dry,
then apply your mixture ; take pains and rub it
well in, as it will want much more of your mixture
than when they were not washed, but they will
look of a much brighter and more brilliant colour-
You will find how to take out all your ink, and
other stains, by the directions given in the receipts.
When you clean your chairs, remove them all
out into the middle of the room. 1 have often
seen, in many houses where I have been, the walls
marked and smutted all over with the oil, or what-
ever they cleaned their furniture with. This has
a very bad appearance ; besides, it disfigures the
walls in a ridiculous manner, and shows great
neglect of neatness in the servant. Therefore,
when you clean your chairs, sideboards, &c. al-
ways move them from the walls, and be very par-
ticular about the backs of your chairs, and the
edges of the tables, that you do not leave any of
your mixture, to dirty the ladies' or gentlemen's
clothes, as this would be a sad affair. But I trust
you will follow these remarks and observations
which 1 have laid down, and you are sure to give
BRUSHING AND FOLDING GENTLEMEN'S
This is another part of a house servant's busi-
ness, which requires a great deal of care, as good
clothes are often spoiled through neglect and bad
management. Therefore I shall endeavour to give
you some directions and insight of brushing and
folding them up in a proper manner. In the first
place, if your gentleman's clothes should happen
to get wet or muddy, hang them out in the sun or
before the fire to dry. Do not attempt to brush
them while wet, or you will surely spoil them, but
as soon as they are perfectly dry, take and rub
them between your hands where there any spots
of mud, then hang them on your clothes horse,
which you must have for the purpose ; then lake a
rattan and give them a whipping, to take out the
dust, but be careful and don't hit the buttons, or
you will be apt to break or scratch them.
When this is done, take your coat and spread it
on a table at its full length. Let the collar be to-
wards the left hand, and the brush in your right,
then brush the back of the collar first, between
the shoulders next, then the sleeves and cuffs, then
brush the farthest lapel and skirt, then the near
one, observing to brush with the nap of the cloth,
as it runs towards the skirts. When all these parts
are properly done, then fold as follows. Double
the off sleeve from the elbow towards the collar,
the other the same way ; then turn the lapel over
the sleeve as far as the back seam, and the other
in the same manner ; then turn up the oif skirt so
that the end may touch the collar ; the near one
the same ; give it a light brush over, and then turn
one half the coat right even over the other, and
you will find the coat folded in a manner that will
gain you credit from any genUeman, and will keep
smooth for any journey.
BRUSHING AND CLEANING GENTLEMEN'S
This is another part of a gentleman's wardrobe,
that you should pay much care and attention to,
or otherwise it will soon look shabby. You should
have a soft camels' hair brush to brush your hats
with, as this brush will not injure the fur, nor
scratch it off. Should the hat happen to get wet,
you must handle it as lightly as possible, or you
will put it out of form, but to remedy this, you
should put your left hand with your fingers ex-
tended open, into the hat, then take a silk hand-
kerchief in your right hand and rub it lightly all
round, the way the fur goes, until almost dry ;
then take your hat-brush and brush it the way the
fur goes until almost dry ; if the fur sticks and does
not brush smooth, you must take the brush that
you polish your shoes with. Should the fur not
come smooth, you must dip a sponge in some beer
or spirits of wine, the latter is preferable, as it
gives a brilliant jet lustre to the fur. Continue to
brush with yonr hand brush until dry ; then give
it a light rub over with a silk handkerchief, and
put in your hat-stick. There are some people that
think brushing a hat while it is wet, certainly spoils
it ! but it is quite the contrary ; for the hatters
themselves always brush and finish off their hats
while damp, so as to give the fur a brilliant appear-
ance. Likewise they set them to thefr regular
shapes while damp. I have received these in-
structions myself, from one of the best hat manu-
facturers in London ; and I hope that my young
friends will follow the example, that their mode of
working may be a credit to themselves, and give
general satisfaction to their employers ; therefore I
shall proceed to give you some instructions in the
following pages, on the next part of your work.
REGULATIONS FOR THE PANTRY.
The pantry is the place where the footman gen-
erally does the most part of his work, such as to
clean his plate, trim his salts and casters, and trim
his lamps and candlesticks, wash his breakfast
things, and his glasses and silver after dinner, and
several other articles ; therefore you should be
very particular in keeping it clean and neat, and
have all your drawers and lockers for their sever-
al uses. Make it a general rule always to have
every thing in its proper place, as nothing looks
worse than to see every thing topsy turvy ; this is
an English phrase, but the meaning is, to see every
thing in its wrong place ; for the beauty of a good
servant is to have a proper place for every thing
that is used in common, that he may know where
to lay his hand upon it, when it is wanted ; this
will be greatly to your advantage.
In the next place you must have a small tub to
wash your breakfast things in, and another for
your glasses, as the one you wash your breakfast
things in generally is greasy, as you often have
eggs, sausages, ham, &c. for breakfast. You
should likewise have a sufficiency of towels, as it
is impossible to do work without good materials to
do it with, therefore you should have cloths for
your glasses, tea things, and likewise for your
knives, knife trays, and lamps, and always use
your towels for their proper uses ; your water for
your tea things should be as hot as you can bear
your hand in it. Put in a little soap, as it gives
china a fine polish and keeps them from having a
greasy feeling ; do not put too many tea cups or
saucers in at a time for fear of breaking them ; be
particular and wipe them very dry and clean, and
put them by neat and tidy ; there is nothing stands
more high for the reputation of a servant, than to
see his pantry kept neat, and every thing in it
handsomely arranged in its place.
DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING TEA TRAYS.
This is another part of your work that requires
much care, as such articles are often spoiled
through not being properly attended to. In the
first place you never should pour boiling water on
a tray, as it makes the varnish crack and peel off.
When your japan trays are dirty, take a sponge
and dip it in warm water, rub on a little soap, and
wash your tray with this; wipe it dry, and if it
looks smeary, dust a little flour over it, and polish
off with a dry cloth. This is the most safe and
best way to clean and polish japanned tea trays.
If your paper trays should get spotted, take a
piece of flannel, dip it in some sweet oil, and rub
it over the spots; if any thing can take them out,
this will. Polish off with a soft cloth, then lightly
with an old silk handkerchief, which you must
keep for this purpose.
In the next place you must be very particular in
wiping out your tea urn after it is emptied. Never
leave any wet on the outside, for it will leave
marks after it. Always make it a general rule to
put away every thing in its proper place ; and
never leave your glasses, trap's, or plate about
dirty any longer than you can get a chance to
wash them and put theba away ; for if they are
left around, they are apt to get broken, and of
course it will be laid to your negligence, which
surely it is. There are many houses that you
may go into and find the pantry in a sad dilemma,
and at an hour of the day when a servant ought to
be ashamed to have his things so disorderly.
There is nothing that points out a good, capable
servant, so soon as to see his things kept in good
order, and in their proper places.
WASHING AND CLEANING DECANTERS.
In washing decanters, the greatest care should
be taken, both as to what you clean them with, and
that you do not break them. There are various
ways of cleaning them, and every one thinks his
own way the best. There are some that recom-
mend sand, cinders, coals, &c. and more above
them, recommend sand-paper, egg-shells, wood-
ashes, and what not. I have tried almost all these
articles, but none of them have answered my ex-
pectations, for the whole of these articles have a
kind of a scratching quality about them, very unfit
for this purpose ; therefore I shall give you direc-
tions for one that has fully answered my purpose
for many years. In the first place, take some
thick brown paper, cut it up into small pieces, then
roll it between your hands, and put it into your
decanter, with a few bits of soap cut small ; then
pour into the decanter some warm water, not boil-
ing, and shake them about for some time, until you
see the scum and dirt quite disappear. You may
add in a little pearl ashes with the soap. Should
any of the crust of the wine appear, apply a piece
of sponge made fast to a piece of cane or stick for
this purpose ; this will remove all the scum or crust
of the wine out of the old scratches, and give your
decanters a beautiful polish. Rinse them twice in
cold clean water, and turn up to drain ; when
they are well drained, wipe them clean with your
glass towel, and afterwards take your shammy
leather to give them the last polish. If they are
cut glass, you must have a brush to brush the lint
which your glass cloth may leave in the cutting,
or rough work, then give them a good polish with
your shammy leather, and put them away in their
proper places. Now, my youug friends, I have
here given you instructions how to proceed, and I
sincerely wish that you may follow the example.
ON TRIMMING THE CRUET STAND OR
This is the most particular article that belongs
to your dinner utensils ; therefore you should re-
member to examine it every day to see if all the
cruets are clean, and full of every thing that is ne-
cessary, to have in them, such as mustard, oil, vin-
egar, catsup, soy, black pepper, and cayenne, or
other sauces that you may have bottles for; there-
fore you should always see that your casters are
furnished with all those articles daily, as there is
nothing that looks so negligent in a servant, than
to want for any of these articles when called for
by any of the company. Besides, it is a great
mortification to your employers, as a lady should
not want to be troubled to look after these things,
if she has a man that is capable of his business.
You should therefore make it your chief study to
have every thing in good order that is under your
care and influence ; it will not only gain credit from
your employers, but meet the approbation of other
ladies and gentlemen who may visit there. In the
next place you should never leave your mustard
spoon in your mustard after dinner is over, or
your salt spoons in your salt cellars, especially if
they are silver or plated, as salt left on any plated
article is sure to rust or canker, therefore you
should always wash your mustard and salt spoons,
when you are washing up your glasses and silver,
after dinner ; and you should likewise empty out
your salt, and wipe dry your salt cellars, and put
them away in their proper places : you will find
directions, by looking for them in the Index, for
mixing your mustard and all other articles which
you may have occasion for using. You should
never waste any thing, for it is a very wicked thing
to waste or destroy any of your employer's proper-
ty, except what is absolutely necessary.
TO CLEAN TEA AND COFFEE URNS.
These are articles that should be taken great
care of, as they are generally very expensive, and
if not taken care of, they are easily spoiled. If
your tea or coffee urns are silver or plated, you
must clean, as under the head of Plate ; but if they .
are bronze, you must clean them as per direction
in the Index. Be very particular when you put
by your urns, that they are perfectly dry inside;
if not they are apt to get musty. Should you put
by your urus to remain any length of time, take
and fill them with old paper ; it is a very good plan
to have covers made for your urns, as this pre-
vents the flies from dirtying them, and likewise
keeps them free from dust or damp. You should
be very careful when you are filling your urn, that
the water or coffee is on a level with the heater,
if not the heater is ver^'' apt to burn the sides and
top of the urn.
You must likewise be very careful when you
put in your heater, that you do not let it down too
heavy, as there is great danger of breaking the
bottom of the urn. Tea and coffee urns are often
spoiled through servants not studying such obser-
vations as these. There should be a proper hook
to put in the heater and to take it out, and by this
way you will never injure your urn. In the next
place you must always have your water that is
for tea, boiling, before you put it into the urn, for
it is impossible to make good tea if the water does
not boil, even, if the tea is of ever so good a quali-
ty. Now, my young friends, I have here given
you instructions concerning yonr tea and coffee
urns, and how to manage them ; therefore I trust
that you will imitate them as near as possible, and
always study to give general satisfaction to those
MAHOGANY DINNER TRAYS.
These are another part of your work, that should
be kept in good order, as they are a part of the
furniture, which is most commonly carried in and
out of the parlour, through the course of dinner ;
therefore you should endeavour to keep them
clean and in good order, as they are exposed to
the eyes of the company. You should clean them
as the rest of the mahogany, but you will often
have to wash them, as they are liable to have
gravy and other sauces spilled in them, during the
carrying up and down of the dinner ; but as soon
as dinner is over, you should wash out your trays
if they want it, and hang them up in their proper
places, until you clean them the next day, when
you are cleaning your furniture.
There is nothing so advantageous to a servant as
to have good rules to work by, therefore his princi-
pal one should be, to keep every thing in its pro-
per place, and in good order. I have lived in fam-
ilies where I could go to my pantry at any hour
of the night, let it be ever so dark, and lay my
hand on any thing that I wanted, as quick and
with as little noise as if I had a light. This is easi-
ly done, if you only give yourself the habit of put-
ting things by tidy and in their proper places.
Should you have a sink in your pantry, as there
generally is, be very particular in keeping it clean ;
throw no tea leaves or any dirt that may stop up
the waste pipe ; if you do, the water will grow
stagnated, and cause a bad smell, which is very dis-
agreeable. After you have done washing up your
glasses, rinse out your sink with clean wrter, wipe
it dry with a coarse towel, that you must have for
REMARKS ON THE MORNING'S WORK IN
Now, my young friends, I shall- here give you
some instructions how to proceed with your morn-
ing's work, in winter time. In the first place, make
it your business to h^ve plenty of wood, coal, or
whatever fuel you burn, in its proper place over
right, as it will save you a great deal of time in
the morning, as the mornings are so short at this
season of the year, and it is a great advantage to
have these necessaries in readiness, where perhaps
you have three or four fires to make, and grates
and fire irons to clean before the family rises. In
the next place you should rise early so as to be
able to have j'our fires made and the rooms warm
before you clean yourself for breakfast. Therefore
when you first come down, make as little noise as
you possibly can in openiiig your rooms where
you have fires to make, then proceed to take up
your ashes, clean your grates, or fire irons, and
tidy up your hearth. When this is done, proceed
to make your fires. When they are all made, and
burning well, then wash your hands, and open
your shutters, and proceed to set out your break-
fast table. When this is done, go round and see
that all your fires burn well, or if they want re-
plenishing, that the rooms may be warm and com-
fortable against the family come down stairs.
Keep all your doors shut, and then, if you think
you have time to clean your front-door brasses
before they come down, it is a very desirable job
to get out of the way before the family come
down ; but you can judge as to what time you
have to spare. As you should have yourself clean
and tidy against they come down to breakfast, you
should always clean your boots and shoes over
night, because it gives you more time in the morning.
DIRECTIONS FOR SETTING OUT THE
Now, my young friends, I shall give you some
instructions how to set out your breakfast, dinner,
and tea tables ; but I first will give you instruc--
tions for your breakfast table. In the first place,
say all your things are clean and in readiness in.
your pantry, as they should be, and that your
family for breakfast consists of six or eight people.
In the first place, dust off your table clean, and
spread your cloth neatly, observing that the centre
crease of your cloth is right in the centre of the
table, and that it don't hang longer at oneend than
at the other : then proceed to set out your break-
fast tray ; laying a cup and saucer for each per-
son, with a teaspoon in each saucer, at the right
hand .side of the cup ; then set in the centre of the
tray, your sugar pot on the right hand, your creatij
pot on the left, and your slop bowl in the centre^
with your tea pot behind them, so as to be right
under the tea urn, and that the tap of the urn may
reach it, when on the table. As soon as you have
this done, set your tray at the end of the table
where the lady sits that pours out the tea, then
put around your plates, one for each person, put-
ting them at a proper distance from each other 5
then your knife and fork to each small plate, the
knife on the right hand, the fork on the left, with
the end of the handles even with the edge of the
table ; you must always have salt on the table, as
most families have eggs, or some kinds of meat on
the table for breakfast.
In summer, you must put your butter and cream
to cool some time before you have set your table.
If you have not a proper cooler, take a large bowl,
and half fill it with water, then put a small plate in
the bottom of the bowl, then put in your butter and
cream pot, then a small piece of ice, if you use
any. This is a very good method to cool your
butter and cream for breakfast. If your break-
fast table is rather small you must spread a nap-
kin on a small stand, place it on the left hand side
of the lady that makes tea ; place on this the tea
caddy, and if there is not room on the breakfast
tray, for all your cups and saucers to be placed
tiniform, you may put the remainder on the stand.
Remember to put on a knife for your bread and
one for the butter, and if any cold meat is put on
the table lay a dinner knife and fork to it for carv-
ing ; and if there are eggs, do not forget the spoons ;
and if you don't use egg cups a^d stands, you
Oiust put on wine glasses. If any of your family
like mustard with their meat, you must put the
cruet stand or casters on the stand.
When you have every thing properly arranged
on your breakfast table, then put round the chairs,
and if it is cold weather, see that your fires burn
well, and your room comfortable, against the fami-
ly come down to breakfast ; then see that the wa-
ter boils, and that your heater is in good order for
your urn. Always fill your urn before you put in
your heater ; and don't forget your urn ring if
they use one.
When you take in the urn, place it exactly be-
hind the tea pot, that the tap 'may come over it,
and be near enough to the person that makes tea
that they may turn it into the tea pot without
Whatever you have to carry in for breakfast,
such as toast, rolls, eggs, &c. always take them in
on a waiter ; never carry in, or hand any thing
with the naked hand, as it looks very ungenteel.
Now I have given you full instructions for your
breakfast table, I shall proceed to give you in-
structions for your dinner table.
REGULATIONS FOR THE DINNER TABLE.
There is not any part of a servant's business that
requires greater attention and systematical neat-
ness, than setting out his dinner table, and manag-
ing for a party of sixteen or eighteen people. It is a
branch of a servant's business wherein he can show
more of his ability than in any thing else that he
may have to encounter. There are many servants,
we very well know, that make great pretensions to
conducting a party or dinner, who yet never knew
the first principles of properly waiting at table.
This causes great confusion in a house, both to the
family, and the rest of the servants. It is no easy
thing to be able to wait properly at dinner, and to
have every thing done in proper and systematical
order. I am sorry to say that I have seldom
met with many servants who could properly man-
age a dinner party of sixteen or eighteen, without
confusion in some part or the other of it ; and par-
ticularly in small families, where they have com-
pany but seldom. Confusion often occurs, through
not having a sufficiency of things for the party,
without having to wash plates, spoons, &c. while
at dinner ; and it likewise too often happens,
through fault of the servant at the head of the fam-
ily not knowing his business.
In the first place, the greatest attention should be
paid, to have all the things that are for use properly
arranged, and appointing each attendant his proper
place, and what he has to do. You will always
find the more help there is to wait on table, the
more confusion there is, especially if their difierent
offices are not pointed out before dinner by the
servant that is to conduct the dinner. I have al-
ways found that one good servant that understands
his business, c?n do more work in its proper order
than three awkward ones, as they are chiefly in
each other's way, and this causes a great confusion
in the course of dinner. There are some families
that think a servant ought to wait on eight or ten at
dinner,but I tell them that they are much mistaken,
for this is too many for one man to wait upon, to do
it to perfection •, and especially if there are many
changes. Therefore, my young friends, I have
now brought you thus far and given you general
directions in the various branches before laid down,
in which I have generally addressed myself to all ',
I therefore shall now address myself to Joseph per-
sonally, and consider him as having a party of ten,
where there is no man servant kept but him-
self, and no one to show him but himself, and where
he must be answerable for conducting the party
alone; therefore I shall give him all the instruc-
tions in my power; and by the rest of my young
friends listening with attention,it may prepare them
for such situations in future.
Now, Joseph, the first thing that is to be attend-
ed to, is to enquire of the cook what there is for
dinner ; by doing this you will be able to judge
what things you may vi^ant, as it is very awkward
to leave the room, in the middle of the dinner
for things that you should have had before the din-
ner was served up. In the next place you should
ask the cook if there is any particular way of send-
ing things up; as you may make sad mistakes if
3^ou have not a bill of fare, and should you have
one, you will not be at a loss how to put the dinner
on the table in proper order as it is there directed.
LAYING THE CLOTH, &C.
In putting the cloth on the table, you should be
very particular,observing, in the first place, to have
its right side uppermost. This you may easily learn
by looking at the hem and fold. Likewise you
must be very particular to have the bottom of the
cloth to the bottom of the table. In most all dinner
cloths that are spread for company, there is
generally some ornamental work wrought on them,
on some there is the family's coat de arms,
on others, baskets of flowers, birds, branches, &c.
Then suppose there is a basket of flowers, the bot-
tom of the basket should be towards the person at
the bottom of the table, as the design should al-
ways go up the table ; the centre of the table cloth
should likewise go exactly down the centre of the
table, and not hang the eighth of an inch longer at
one end than the other.
SETTING OUT THE DINNER TABLE.
When your cloth is perfectly even, then put
round your plates, laying four at each side, and
one at each end, observing to have them at equal
distance from each other, then put on your nap-
kins, having them neatly folded so as to admit the
bread into them, without being seen ; then put
round your knives and forks, placing the knives at
the right hand, with the edge of the blade towards
the plate, and the end of the handle to come even
with the edge of the table ; then place round your
forks on the left hand, in the same manner ; then
put your carving knife and fork head and point, in
the same way. When you have this done, put a
dinner knife and fork at each side of the table,
opposite the centre, for carving with ; then put
round your tumblers, one at the right side of each
plate, about three inches from the edge of the ta-
ble. The best method to have them at an equal
distance from the edge of the table is, to take a
steel fork, hold the prong in your right hand, al-
lowing about three fnches of the handle and prong
to be extended from your fore finger against the
edge of the table, letting the handle of the fork go
in on the table ; then draw your tumbler so as to
touch the handle of the fork ; and so on to each
tumbler. By this process you will be able to have
your tumblers at a proper distance from the edge
of the table; then put round your wineglasses,
one before each tumbler ; let the foot of each
wine glass touch the tumbler, and this will keep
them even, in like manner ; then put round your
plates ; put a spoon between each plate in a straight
line all around the table, with the bowls upwards,
as they show much better to advantage ; then
put on your two large gravy-spoons, one at the bot-
tom, and another at the top. Put these across,
before the head and foot plate; then put round
your salts, which should be six in number, as this
is the regular quantity for ten to dinner. Remem-
ber to put on your salt spoons, and if you have a
salad to go in the centre of the table, lay a silver
waiter under it, so as to raise your sakd bowl
more majestically. If you have four wines, put
one at each corner of the table, but not so near as
to be knocked off. When removing dishes, if your
family dine by candle light, the candlesticks or
branches are put in the centre of the table. Should
there be branches, the salad or epergne must be
put in the centre, with one of the branches between
that and the bottom, and the other between that and
the top ; you should have plenty of plates, knives
and forks, spoons, glasses of both kinds, and every
thing else that is necessary for your dinner ; as it
is much better to have in the room more things
than are wanted, of every description, than not to
have enough ; as this causes great confusion.
SETTING OUT THE SIDEBOARD.
In setting out your sideboard, you must study
neatness, convenience, and taste ; as you must
think that ladies and gentlemen that have splendid
and cosily articles, wish to have them seen and set
out to the best advantage. I have often seen at
parties, where I have been attending, side boards
and side tables set out in such a manner that they
looked quite in a state of confusion ; whereas, if
they were set out in a proper order, they would
make a magnificent appearance. There are some
old and experienced servants, that will set out their
tables and side boards with such a degree of taste
and neatness, that they will strike the eyes of eve-
ry person who enters the room, with a pleasing
sensation of elegance..
The grapes which are to go on with the des-
sert, &c. with all the spare glasses that are for
dinner, must go on the sideboard, with your cham-
paign, hawk, and ale glasses. When all these are
properly arranged, they make a grand display.
Your glasses should form a crescent, or half circle,
as this looks most sublime. ]f you should have a
light on your sideboard, you must leave a vacant
place behind your glasses for it ; in forming the
crescent, your highest glasses must be the farthest
off, and the smaller ones in an inner circle. Let
them be put two and two, that is, one large and one
small, that you may have them ready when want-
ed. In the space between the glasses, place your
cruet-stand or casters, this must be right in the
centre of the sideboard, and about two inches
from the edge ; then put at each side of your cas-
ters your two water decanters, then your small sil-
ver hand waiters, one on each side of each water
decanter, then your wine for the dessert, in the
silver coursters, in the same manner; then if there
is any vacancy left, you may fill it up with some
spoons, as spoons, &c. give glass a brilliant dis-
play. If your sideboard is very large, you may
put your finger glasses on it, but mind that every
thing looks uniform. In the next place, put your
plate in the most convenient place, with your knife
trays and clean cloths spread in them. Keep one
of them for removing the knives from the dishes,
before you take the dishes from the table.
You never should take a dish from the table with
the knife and fork in it, as it is very dangerous ; if
the knife or fork should fall off, it might perhaps
stick in your foot, or, on the other hand, it will
dirty the carpet, which is a very disagreeable
thing, and is sure to give dissatisfaction to the lady
of the family.
There are many such disasters as this that hap-
pen through the servant's not attending properly
to the regular rules of waiting at table. There
are many servants that put themselves quite in a
state of confusion, by being in too great a hurry.
The beauty of a servant is to go quietly about the
room when changing plates or dishes ; he never
should seem to be in the least hurry or confusion,
for this plainly shows that he is deficient of his
duty. A man that knows his business well, should
take hold of things as a first-rate mechanic, and
never seem to be agitated in the least. You should
always have a quick, but light and smooth step,
around the room while waiting ; practice will
soon bring you to this. And in the next place you
should always wear tight shoes or thin pumps
while waiting at dinner, as it impossible for you to
go quick and light, if you wear heavy shoes or
boots, in the parlour.
THE SIDE TABLE.
The side table is the place where you are to
have all your dinner plates, pudding and cheese
plates, and likewise the dessert plates, if there is
not room on your sideboard for them. You must
have a clean cloth spread upon it, as your salad
and cold meats are to be placed on it, if they are
not put on your dinner table. Divide your dinner
plates into three piles ; place one pile in the cen-
tre of the side table, about two inches from the
edge, then place your other two piles, one on each
side, leaving a regular space betwe<en them, so as
to place your knives and forks between them, and
this you must do with great taste, that they may
look ornamental like the things on your side-
board, observing the same rule, to have every
thing that is wanted first, next at hand. Place in
the space that is left between the centre pile and
that on the right hand, your large knives and
forks, letting the ends of all the handles be on an
even line with the edge of the table ; then in the
space on the left of the centre pile, set your small
knives and forks, in the same manner, observing
every thing to be uniform and in its proper place.
Then place a pile of your small cheese plates be-
hind the pile of large ones at the left of the cen-
tre, and your pudding plates behind the pile on
the right, having each pile of an even height. But
there should be no more than a dozen and a half
in each pile, at most. Should there be any more
vacant places, ornament them with some spoons,
and your sauce ladles ; having the bowls upper-
most, as they show to more advantage ; but leave
room enough behind for your cold meats, if there
is any ; then put your dowlasses on your dessert
plates,with a dessert knife, fork and spoon ; the knife
to the right side and the fork to the left, with the
spoon in the centre. Place those neatly on your
side table, if there is not room on the sideboard for
them ; but the sideboard is the proper place, as
they are convenient to the dessert glasses, &c.
Insetting out your sideboard and side table you
should always study convenience and elegance, in
putting your things on, and study to have plenty
of every thing, that you need not have to leave
the room during the course of dinner. You must
never be afraid of a little trouble when there is
company, for where the sideboard and side table
is set out with taste and ingenuity, it has a very
pleasing effect to those who go in and see order
and design prevail.
Never bring in your cheese before wanted, as the
smell may be disagreeable to some of the company.
In the next place you should be careful not to
make any more noise than you possibly can. When
changing the plates, take off" your dirty knife and
fork very gently, and lay them in your knife tray,
and put the plate into the plate basket as gently as
you can. When returning a clean plate, lay your
knife and fork on it as easy as you can, so as to
cause no rattle nor noise. Put the knife on the
right and the fork on the left in the bowl of the
plate, and lay it before the lady or gentleman as
gently as possible. Always observe to go to the
left side of the person that you hand any thing
to, or take any thing from, as it is very awkward
to hand any thing at the right hand side of the
person ; I have seen many accidents happen through
the neglect of not practising these rules. In many
cases there have been whole glasses of beer, water,
and wine, upset, all through handing it at the right
hand side ; for instance, perhaps the gentleman to
whom 3^ou are taking the glass of beer, &c. may
raise his arm, and thus upset the whole.
DINNER ON THB TABLE,
When your dinner is on the table, and every
thing that is necessary, stand at the bottom and
cast your eyes along the table, and you will per-
ceive in an instant if any of your dishes are not
properly placed. You should observe to have
your side dishes in a straight line, and at a regular
distance from each other, and also match in size
and colour, cross corners, your four corner dishes
should go rather on a square, and to match each
other cross corner ; as a middling dinner when
well served up, and the dishes well matched, and
at a proper distance from each other, has a more
pleasing aspect that double as large a one, when
crowded, and improperly put on table ; yoa
should pay the greatest attention to this rule,
WAITING ON DINNER,
When the chairs are put round, and all things
quite ready, proceed to the drawing room, or
wherever the company is. If the drawing room
is large, advance a little towards the lady or gen-
tlf man of the family, and with a graceful motion
of your head, say, " Ma'am," or " Sir, the dinner
is served ;" or " Ladies and Gentlemen, dinner is
on the table." When you see that they have no-
ticed the announcement, then proceed to the din^
ing room door, and hold it open until the company
have all gone in, then shut it, and when the com-
pany have sat down, if there is soup, take off the
cover ; if there should be only fish at the top, and
a joint at the bottom, remove the cover from off the
fish or soup, and from off the proper sauce for the
fish ; and if there is no one but yourself to wait,
take your station at the bottom of the table, about
a yard behind the person that sits at the foot of
the table; stand rather a little to the left of his
chair. By standing in this position, you will com-
mand a full view of the table ; whereas if you
stand behind the person that carves, at the bottom
of the table, you cannot see when the plates want
changing. When you hold a plate to the carver
to help a lady or gentleman, stand at the left hand
of the carver, holding the plate in your left hand,
with your thumb on the rim of the plate, and your
two fingers extended under the bottom ; you should
never let your thumb go farther than the rim of
the plate, for it is a very improper thing to run
your thumlD half way across the plate. If you
want to tip the dish for gravy, change the plate
into your right hand, and be careful that you do
not spill the gravy on the cloth. When you take
it to whom it is for, go to the left side, and with your
right hand take the plate that is done with, and with
your left hand lay the other gently before them.
You should never lay a plate before a lady or
gentleman at their right hand side, except by
some particular reason, that you have to sit»it
down with your right hand on the right hand side.
When you are holding a plate to a carver, or
handing the vegetables or sauces round, you must
hold them in your left hand at the side of the per-
son you have to serve ; and keep your fingers ex-
tended under the bottom, and in the same manner
as you hold a plate.
When you are taking off all your covers, begin
at the bottom dish first, at the left hand side, tak-
ing them off with your left hand all round, until
you come to the bottom again, then place them in
your dinner tray until you have time to take or
send them out of the room. When beer, cider, or
water is called for, go to the right side, as the
tumbler stands on that side 5 and be careful that
you do not run them over, as you will wet the cloth.
W^hen you hand a glass or any thing on a hand
waiter, always go to the left side.
When you hand a glass, knife and fork, or any
thing else to any of the company, always take a
hand waiter, as it is very improper to hand any
thing with the naked hand ; likewise when you
are taking any thing off the table, such as a glass,
spoons, or any other small article, have a waiter
in your left hand, and take off the article with your
right. In the next place when j'ou are ready for
the removes, for the soup, and fish, ring the bell,
that the cook may have it in readiness against you
want it ; but, before you remove the soups or fish,
take your knife tray, and remove the soup ladle
and fish knife from them, holding your knife tray
in your left hand, and removing them with your
right. As soon as the removes are put on the ta-
ble, uncover them, taking care that you don't dirt
the cloth with the drops of steam from the covers,
but, to hinder this, turn up the covers quick.
Then the next thing is to exert your skill and
ability, until the company is all served round, with
meat, vegetables, &c. Then take your station, and
keep your eyes and ears open, to see and hear
what the company may want, or ask for. Do not
wait to be asked for every thing by the company ;
for if you keep a sharp eye on the table, you will
see many things wanted, by persons who perhaps,
through being a little bashful, will not ask for them-
selves ; such as bread, vegetables, or sauce ; like-
wise what may be wanted on particular occasions,
such as mustard to duck and goose, fish-sauce to
fish, mint-sauce to lamb, lemon to veal, bread-
sauce to fowls, &c. &c. When you remove or
takeofi'the dishes, if large, put your two hands to
them ; stand at the left side of the person who sits
opposite; the small ones yoi^may take off with
your one hand, but you must be very careful that
you do not spill the gravy on the cloth. Always
take a firm hold of the dishes when taking them
off the table ; observing to keep your right hand
up one side of the dish towards the centre of the
table, and the left hand near the other end, keep-
ing a firm grasp with your thumbs, and your fin-
gers well extended under the dish ; always lift
the dishes high enough to clear the glasses, &c.&c.
When you perceive the company do not seem to
eat of the dishes on the table, keep your eye on the
lady or gentleman of the family, as they generally
give the signal to remove the first course. You
must give the cook information before dinner that
you will ring the bell twice, as a signal for second
course to be got ready. When you are taking off
your dishes,do it very gently, but quick and handy.
You must not seem to be in the least confusion, for
there is nothing that looks so bad as to see a man in
a bustle, or confused state, when he has the manage-
ment of a party. He should always take hold of
his work as if he understood it, and never seem to
be agitated in the least.
As soon as you perceive the signal to remove the
first course, take your knife-tray and remove all
the knives, forks, and spoons, from all the dishes,
and the ladles from out the sauce-boats, before you
attempt to remove any of the dishes from off the
table ; when you have finished this part, then go
to the bottom of the table, and begin at the bot-
tom dish, on the left side, taking all before you as
you go along, observing to. keep on the left side of
the person who sits opposite the dish you are tak-
ing ; putting your two hands to the large one as
directed ; and only your left hand to the small
ones ; and so on, all round the table, until you
come to the bottom again.
Then proceed for your second course, which
you may bring in on your dinner tray, if your tray
is large enough. Place your second course into
it as it is to go on the table, but if you have a bill
of fare, you need not be so particular. Have your
bill of fare in your tray, that you may make no
mistakes, when putting your dishes on the table.
Begin in the same manner as you took the others
off, first at the bottom, then the left side, and so on
all round, observing to place your dishes at a regu-
lar distance from each other. When you have
them all put on in proper order, take off all the
covers as you did the first course, beginning at the
bottom, up the left side, taking them off with your
left hand, and so on until you come to the bottom
again. See that there are knives, forks, and spoons,
to the dishes that want them ; then be ready to
wait on the company.
When you see that they are finished with the
second course,J,hen put round your small cheese
plates as you take your others off, with a small
knife ; if there is salad, you must put on a fork
likewise. Have your salad, butter, cheese, and
cucumbers ready against the second course comes
off; but there are many families that have the sal-
ad, butter, cheese, radishes, &c. all put on with
the second course ; this saves a great deal of trou-
ble and waiting on. But if your family should
like the other way best, when your second course
is done with, take your knife-tray, and remove
all the knives, forks, and spoons, from off the dish-
es. When this is done, take off all the dishes as
directed in the other courses ; then put on your
cheese, &c. If there should be two cheeses, with
butter, salad, cucumbers, radishes, &c. put your
cheese at top and bottom, your salad in the cen-
tre, and your butter and radishes at the sides ; two
plates of butter, and two of radishes to be put
cross corners, will make your table look much bet-
ter than with one of each. When you have put
a knife to your cheese, another to j^our butter
with your salad spoon to your salads, &c. then
proceed to hand round the cheese and wait on
the company. Sometimes there is champaign,
porter, or ale handed round, while at cheese ; but
in other families, while at the second course ;
and in others when the dessert is put on the
table ; but the gentleman of the family most com-
monly gives directions about his wines, and when
they "are to be put on the table.
As soon as the company are done with the
cheese, &c. take your knife-tray and remove your
salad spoon, butter and cheese knife ; then begin
and take off the dishes, as you did in the other
courses ; then clear of all your dirty glasses. The
best means of doing this is to have a large waiter ;
let one of those who help you, take a firm hold of
it between his two hands while jou begin at the
bottom of the table on the left side, and clear ev-
ery glass, spoon, and knife away, while he is to fol-
low you round with the waiter. When all is clear-
ed away and the wine 'taken off the table, then take
a large plate and a fork in your right hand, and take
up all the pieces of bread, from the cloth; then
take another plate and j^our table brush, or a clean
towel rolled up, begin at the bottom on the left side,
brushing off clean all the crumbs, until you come
to the bottom again, then put round your finger
glasses, one to each person, beginning at the bottom
and going all round ; you may put on those to the
right side of the ladies or gentlemen. When the
company are all done with their glasses, begin at
the bottom and lake them off all round. When
this is done, take off your tablecloth, napkins, &c.
then take a towel and wipe off your table, begin-
ning at the bottom, and wiping all round ; then pro-
ceed to put round your plates.
PUTTING ON THE DESSERT.
Put round your dessert plates one before each
person, then your wine glasses, placing two on the
right side of each plate, then put on your wine
coursters, or decanter stands and wine ; if only two,
put one near the corner, top and bottom, on the
right side. If four, one to each corner. If differ-
ent wines, place them so as to match cross corners;
recollect to observe the same rule in putting on the
dessert as the other courses, unless you have more
dishes in number, in this case you may put on the
dishes, top, middle and bottom ; before you put on
the sides, if you have a cake, put it right in the cen-
tre, with your sugar basin and cut-glass water
pitcher between the top and bottona dishes, in a right
line down the centre of the table. Then put round
your side dishes, beginning at the bottom on the left
side, observing to keep them at equal distance from
each other, and all your dishes to match in colour
and size as near as possible, as this is the beauty
of putting on your dessert. When you have all
your dishes on the table, put a knife to your cake,
and half a dozen oflarge spoons reverse to each
other, down the centre of the table, to serve the
dessert with. Should there be blancmange or ice
creams, lay a small pile of plates top and bottom ;
when there are ice creams, you must stop to serve
it round to the company, until all are helped, then
proceed to take all the dirty things out of the room,
with as little noise as possible ; let your clean things,
on the sideboard and sidetable remain until you
clear away, after the company has retired from the
room. Never seem to be in a hurry or bustle in
leaving the room. When all your dirty things are
cleared out, shut the door after you very gently, as
you should never make more noise in the parlour
than you can possibly help.
PREPARATIONS FOR TEA AND COFFEE.
If your family do not dine by candle-light, per-
haps, against dinner is over, it may be time to light
your lamps in the hall, and on the staircase; like-
wise have all your lamps, branches, &c. in readi-
ness in the drawing room, if not lighted, as the ladies
never stop long in the dining room after the dessert
is over. When all your lamps are lit, and every
thing in order, see that your boiler is full and in
readiness for tea; then see to your silver, and knives
and forks, that they are all washed, wiped, and
put away in their places, that they may be in
readiness to clean in the morning ; observe to put
your silver forks and spoons in separate places, for
if you put your forks and spoons together, they
are apt to get scratched. You should likewise
count your silver after it is washed up, for fear
there should be any mislaid.
Then see to your glasses, wash and wipe them
dry, then put them by in their proper places : tidy
up your pantry, and by this means you will have
room for your other dirty glasses, &c. that are used
for the dessert. When the gentlemen have retired
from the dining room, then go in and first put
away all the chairs in their places, then put away
the fruit, &c. in their place, then take a large tray
and take all the glasses off. Put by the wine, and
empty all your dessert plates, and carry all the dirty
things out to your pantry, or where you may wash
them up. Wipe off the table, and take out all the
clean tidings that remain on the sideboard and side
table. When all is cleared away, and your room
put in order, then proceed to wash up your glasses
and dessert plates, spoons, &c. Wipe dry and put
every thing away in their proper places, hang your
towels to dry, and have yourself in readiness against
they order tea or coffee.
CARRYING TEA AND CO F TEE AROUND.
In some houses the drawing room is up stairs ;
should this be the case where you live, you must
be very careful when carrying your tea and coffee
up stairs, that you do not slop it over into the sau-
cers, as this would have a slovenly appearance to
the company. Your tray should be large, if there is
ranch company, that the ladies may take their cup
and saucer with ease. At the first round you should
have one cup of tea between every two of coffee,
as they generally take more coffee than tea at the
first round. When placing your cups and saucers
on the tray, be particular and have them all uniform
and not crowded; with your sugar and cream in
the centre, and the sugar tongs and handle of the
cream pot towards the company. Have, on another
tray, your cake, wafers, toast, bread and butter,&c.
all neatly arranged to take round after you have
served tea and coffee to all the company. But if
you have a large party, you should have some per-
son to hand round the cake, &c. at the same time
that you are serving round tea.
When you first enter the room with the tea, cast
your eyes around the company to observe where
the most elderly lady is seated, then proceed for-
ward and help her first, observing lo lower the wait-
er, that the ladies may take their tea off with ease.
When the ladies are all served, then proceed to
help the gentlemen, beginning as with the ladies.
When all the company are served with the first
round, carry out your tray, and wipe it clean if wet,
then take another waiter to receive the cups as
soon as the ladies and gentlemen are done with
them. During this interval, hand round your cake,
&c. When you have received all your empty
cups, rinse them out, and proceed to serve round
another course, as before, beginning at the same
lady, and going all round, leaving the lady of the
family to be the last lady that is served, as the
strangers must always be served first. This second
round is generally enough, but hand round the cake,
&c. once, or twice after, then carry all out of the
room, and, if cold weather, see that all your fires
OBSERVATIONS ON SUPPER, &c.
Now, my young friends, in the next place I shall
give you some observations on the management of a
supper party. In the first place, we will consider
the party to be from twenty to thirty. Such
parties are very common in private families of fash-
ionable standing. In such parties they generally
play at cards, &c. : therefore have your lamps or
candles in good order and lighted up before the
company has come, and, if cold weather, have your
fires in good order ; likewise have your card tables
placed out, and your chairs adjusted, and every
thing properly arranged and in uniform array, that
every thing may go on in good order, and without
any bustle whatever, that you may gain credit
from your employers and the company likewise.
In the next place see that your tea and coffee
things are in order, and all placed on your waiter
in readiness, should they have tea or coffee, as they
generally do, before supper; likewise have your
glasses wiped and placed on your proper waiters,
as there are generally refreshments carried up to
the drawing room to the company before supper.
Let every thing be in good order and in readiness,
that there need be no confusion whatever. When
you have every thing properly arranged, and your
rooms comfortable, then tidy yourself up, so as to
look smart and clean, and have yourself in readi-
ness to wait on the company, and show them to the
In some families the servant has to announce the
several names of the company as they come, before
entering the drawing-room. This is troublesome
where there is not sufficient help kept; but it is a
most fashionable thing in all families of distinction
in England and France, that the lady and gentle-
man of the family may receive them as they enter
the drawing room, and introduce them to the rest
of the company.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE SUPPER TABLE.
You should always lay your cloth for supper be-
fore the company comes, if you possibly can, as it
saves you a great deal of time which j^ou may want
afterwards, as the company generally wish some re-
freshments carried up to them before supper, &c.
Likewise you should learn from the lady of the fam-
ily how many visitants are expected ; this will be a
guide to let you see what length your table should
be. When laying your cloth you must be as par-
ticular as at dinner; let your knives, forks, spoons,
and salts be placed with the same uniformity as at
dinner, with a tumbler, wine glass, and if there is
champaign, put on a glass likewise to each plate ;
place your tumbler glasses the same distance as di-
rected at dinner, with your wine glass and cham-
paign glass about one inch from your tumbler, but
on a straight line ; let your champaign glass be
behind your wine glass.
Coollers or finger glasses are seldom used at sup-
per parties ; you must have four or six water de-
canters or cut glass pitchers, on your supper table,
as the company generally help themselves at sup-
per without the formality of more attendance than
is necessary for comfort. If it is a cold supper,
your plates may all be cold ; but if in cold weather
and some hot dishes, your plates must be warm.
And keep good fires, that the company may be all
comfortable. You may place all your cold dishes
on as soon as your table is laid, that you may have
more leisure to place them on in proper uniform
and neatness. Have all your dishes to match in
size to each other on opposite sides if possible, and
all at proper and equal distance from each
other. Should you not have a bill of fare to go by,
place them on in the best style you possibly can, so
that the dishes match each other in colours, &c.
cross corners. Have plenty of clean things in the
room, and know that every thing that you may want
is in the room before the company sits down.
There is seldom much change of di'shes at a supper
party, and especially if cold ; for then it all goes
on at once ; therefore you will not want as many
clean articles of each kind as at dinner, such as
knives, forks, spoons, plates, &c. but have_plenty of
brimmer glasses, tumblers, and wine glasses, on
your sideboard and to be set out as at dinner.
Your wine decanters must be put on at supper, as
at dinner. Make it your study to put every thing
on with taste, and as though you had a design for
taste and ingenuity. Supper dishes are generally,
and ought always to be garnished with green pars-
ley or flowers ; if they are, be very careful not to
shake them ofFwhen going up stairs, as they give a
supper table a most sublime appearance, and par-
ticularlj in summer time, when every thing is green
and in bloom.
In waiting at supper, you must observe the same
rules as what I have given for dinner, and regulate
according to the number that you are to have to
assist you to wait, that there may not be the least
bustle or confusion in waiting on the company,
as this is one of the most disagreeable things that
the lady or gentleman of the family can see ; let
each know his proper place appointed, and what he
has to do ; therefore if you abide by those rules, eve-
ry thing will go on in good order, and without any
confusion or mismanagement.
What can be more agreeable to the lady who
gives the entertainment, than to see every thing go
on with order and correctness, without having any
blunders whatever ; but, the company to be com-
fortably and systematically waited on ; this will
give general satisfaction to the family, and gain
credit for yourself. As soon as supper is over, and
the company withdrawn from the supper table,
then see to collecting your plate, and clearing your
dirty things away, and put your clean things in
DIRECTIONS FOR EXTINGUISHING THE
LAMPS, SHUTTING UP THE HOUSE, &c.
As soon as you have all the clean articles put by
in their proper places, and your room put to rights,
then proceed to gather up your plate, &c. It is
oftentimes that spoons, forks, &c. are thrown into
the swill tub after a party, as the servants are gen-
erally in a bustle or hurry ; so the present time is
the best to count over your spoons, forks, &c. that
if any are missing, you can make search immediate-
ly. In the next place, when the party has broken
up, and all dispersed, proceed to extinguish your
lamps, &c. Your lamps must be turned down,
not blown out. Then push up the keys of your
lamps, that the oil may not flow over, to spoil the
carpets, for this would be a sad disaster ; and it of-
tentimes happens through the neglect of servants
not attending properly to the lamps. When all
your lights are extinguished, see that your fire-
guards are put to your fires, and that every thing is
safe in the rooms before you go out ; then fasten
your front door ; then go round to all the doors and
windows on the back part of the house, to ascer-
tain whether they are all safe fastened. This is the
most important part of a servant's duty, to see that
the house, and all the fires are safe. It is so
great and important a part of your duty, that the
lives and property of your employers depends on it.
How many instances have we heard and seen, of
houses being burnt through the neglect of the ser-
vants not having paid proper attention to the fires
and lights ? and on the other hand how many houses
have we heard of being robbed, through the neg-
lect of the servant not paying proper attention to
shutting the doors and favStening the windows?
Another thing, you should have your hall door fast-
ened at dusk, to prevent any one from coming in
and stealing coats, cloaks, hats, &c. as this very
often is the case in a city, and owing to the servants
not fastening it in proper season.
Now, my young friends, I think that I have given
you sufficient instruction, and a full and clear in-
sight into the manner and ways of setting out tables,
&LC. and waiting on parties in a systematical and
proper order, whicii I trust, from my own experi-
ence, is sure to give general satisfaction to your em-
ployers, to gain their approbation, and to get credit
for yourself. Perhaps you may find some trifling
difference in some families, in little ways and no-
tions of their own, for almost every different family
has some different rules of its own, and of
course you are bound to comply with them, as soon
as you enter under an engagement to serve with the
family ; for it is the duty of every servant to com-
ply with his employer's wishes, and conform to
his rules, even if he knows them to be imperfect.
But still, the rules and observations which I have
given, will be a true guide to those who may study
and practise them, in the families whom they
have the honour to serve.
They are all my own experience, for several
years past, in some of the first families in England,
France, and in the United States of America ; and
I am highly flattered that a work of this kind will
be a most essential article to all private families;
and likewise to those domestics that are not perfect,
or properly taught the duty of a domestic, or house
servant. There are many families that have the
misfortune of meeting with men of this sort; and I
am very well aware of the trouble that the lady of
the family has with them, to bring them to under-
stand their business, and by only having one of
these books in the house for the use of the servant,
they will be saved all that trouble, with only the
exception of informing them of the rules of the fam-
ily. I know there are many house servants that
think themselves perfect in every branch of their
duty ; but, when commg to peruse this work, may
find things that they are quite deficient in, and will
see they never had the experience or opportunity of
knowing. I sincerely hope that this work may do
the same good as I expected, when beginning to
ADDRESS AND BEHAVIOUR TO YOUR
I am now going to give my young friends some
advice concerning their behaviour to their employ-
ers, &c. In the first place all domestics should be
submissive and polite to their employers, and to all
visitants that may come to the house. They should
never be pert, or strive to enter into conversation
with their employers or any visitant that may come
to the house, unless they speak to you or ask you a
question, then you should answer them in a po-
lite manner, and in as few words as possible ; for
you must know that is a very impertinent thing to
strive to force conversation on your superiors, un-
less they begin to converse with you first, and then
you are to give answers to their questions, if you
are versed in the knowledge of whatever may be
the subject, and in as correct and pohte a manner
When a lady or gentleman speaks to you, or
asks you a question, answer them very kindly,
Yes, Ma'am,— or No, Ma'am ; Yes, Sir,— or No, Sir.
I have often heard servants answer their employ-
ers in such an impertinent manner as to make my
blood run cold, to think that any one should be so
ignorant as not to know his place better ; because
it is the duty of every servant to be submissive and
obedient to his employers ; for as the old saying
is, " kind and polite words break no bones ;" there-
fore you should make it your whole study to be kind
and obliging to all around you, then you are sure
to gain credit and esteem from every one. You
should likewise be civil and polite to all visitants
who come to the house, and treat them with as
much respect as you would your own employers,
for it is a great advantage to a servant, to have the
good wishes of those ladies and gentlemen that visit
where they live, because you may perhaps one day
or other, have access to their good word, &c.
BEHAVIOUR TO YOUR FELLOW
The greatest comfort of servants is their be-
haviour and conduct towards each other. You will
always find that the' more you endeavour to promote
the happiness of those around you, the more you
will secure your own. , Never be hasty in passing
judgment on any of your comrade servants, as we
are all commanded by our great Creator to act
with christian charity towards each other; and to
do unto others as we would they should do unto us,
were we in their situations, and they in ours. If
this was the way, my friends, how much more pleas-
ant our lives would pass away than they do. But
how different the practice is, I have no need to
mention, for time and experience will soon teach
us what domestic quarrels are ; and I am sorry to
say that several families in this city have such
scenes daily to witness. It is there you will see
envy, malice, duplicity, dishonesty, and misrepre-
sentation, and every evil, to the tormenting of each
other, &c. Instead of living together in unity and af-
fection, and making their home a little heaven,
which they might, if they were so inclined, they
make it a hell on earth, by their wickedness and
disagreeable temper, and often wishing to tyran-
nize over each other.
I have known several places in Europe, where
the servants had every necessary good p make
them comfortable, but yet they were miserable, all
through not agreeing one with the other, as they
should do ; wherein is their true happiness, and
without which they must live miserable. How much
better for servants to live together in peace and
happiness, than to be continually quarrelling among
themselves; whereas, if they would only yield
to each other, and be obliging among one
another, they might live as comfortable and more
free from care than their employers ; as they have
many difficulties to encounter from which the ser-
vant is free, and sure of his wages. However, it is
the lot of all Adam's race to be born to afflictions ;
servants therefore, have them more or less, as well
as others. At such times we should exercise our
charity, and be the more ready to assist each other
in cases of sickness or misfortune; as we know not
what or how soon it may be our own case. I have
known some instances of the good intentions of a
kind master towards an afflicted servant often to be
frustrated, through the ill nature of the rest of the
servants, who would not do any thing for him ;'
thus, the poor afflicted creature is turned out of the
house, through the cruelty of his own companions.
Such persons as those would do well to consider
the words of our Lord and Saviour, as recorded in
Matthew, 7th chapter, and 2d -verse ; " With what
measure you mete to others, it shall be measured
outco you again." Therefore consider, my young
friends, how distressing must be the feelings of a
servant when sick, and not able to do his dutj'' any
longer ; and especially should he be in a foreign
country, or far from parents or relations ; for rela-
tions, we generally have many, but 'very few
friends ; and especially at such a period as that,
when on a bed of sickness and in poverty.
Now, my young friends, I shall give a few words
more of advice. In the first place, my advice is,
never to irritate any person that you find to have a
contentious spirit, nor hold anj' argument with such
an one. Wherever you may live, strive to live in
peace with all; make as many friends as you can,
and as few enemies as possible. Watch over your
own temper scrupulously^; strive not to provoke
any person, not even a foolish or conceited person,
for if you reprove such, they will certainly hate
you, when a wise person would love and respect
you. Always watch over the failings of others, as
warning to yourself; and always try to do unto
others, as you would they should do unto you.
Keep this in mind, and it will support you under all
Take care and never do an injury to any ser-
vant's character, for how easy they may be thrown
out of bread through it, and perhaps led to greater
evils. Always guard againstbeing influenced to do
any kind of injustice to your comrade servants,
either by lying? or any other revengeful spirit. Re-
member that the Lord abhors the deceitful man,
and will not let him go unpunished ; for Solomon
sajs, " he that uttereth a slander is a fool." And
when we recollect that a servant depends wholly on
his character for his living, we should be very care-
ful what we say of each other. You should never
oppress any, let them be ever so wicked, for good
David saith, " God shall break in pieces the op-
pressor," Psalm 72; and in the 12th, he saith,
" For the oppression of the poor and the sighing of
the needy, now will I arise, saith the Lord ; I will
set him in safety, saith the Lord, from him that puf-
feth at him."
How much better would it be for us to act and
do as holy Job did, both for our own comfort and
for the comfort of those around us : hear what the
good man says in chapter 39th. " I was eyes to
the bUnd, and feet was I to the lame, I was a father
to the poor, and the cause which I knew not, I
searched out ; and I break the jaws of the wicked,
and plucked the spoil out of his teeth ;" therefore I
candidly say unto each of ye, go and do ye like-
wise, as far as it is in your power so to do, and the
Almighty will bring you safe through this wicked
world, and place on you a crown of glory in the
next : and I sincerely hope that my young friends
may study those few hasty remarks and observa-
tions which I have here laid down, and now con-
clude with giving my friends some observations
on the behaviour of servants at their meals.
BEHAVIOUR OF SERVANTS AT THEIR
Now, my friends, having had the pleasure and
gratification of bringing je in perfect order to wait
on jour superiors, 1 will therefore give ji'ou some
advice and observations on behaviour and pro-
priety at your own meals. In all families there is
or should be a proper time for the meals in the
kitchen, so as not to interfere with the parlour
hours, as the servants are generally busy at that
lime. All the help should be ready, if possible, to
sit down together at their meals, unless they are
hindered by their employers ; therefore you should
strive to regulate your work, so as to be ready to
sit down together, and not be loitering round as
some do, which often is the cause of sad contention
and confusion ; for where one comes now and an-
other at another time, it interferes with the cook's
business, and hinders her from getting her work
done in proper season.
Therefore, you should all sit down together
thankfully, not to quarrel and dispute with each
other, as very often is the case in families, and mur-
muring that the provisions are not good enough ;
this ( have often seen mjself to be the case, with
those that had scarcely ever seen or known the
comfort of eating a good meal, before they entered
a gentleman's service. Flow wicked must be such
conduct towards God, who has made their cups to
run over with good things ; and how ungrateful
must it be to their employers, who provide boun-
tifully to make them comfortable.
In the next place you should always be careful
of every thing belonging to your employers, and
never make waste of any thing you possibly can
avoid. Whenever you draw beer, cider, or the
like for dinner, never draw more than you think is
wanted ; for it is better to go twice than to make
waste, and the old saying is a true one, " that a
wilful waste often makes a woful want;" this I have
often seen fulfilled, in those that have been extrava-
gant and wasteful of the provisions under their
My young friends, supposing you were in your
employer's situation, and servants under your com-
mand, and your property in their charge, should
you not think them very wicked and dishonest,
when wasting your property and provisions? only
put this to your own feelings, and it will give you
full insight how you should act towards your em-
ployers ; and how you should manage the proper-
ty that is put under your trust.
Now, my friends, I shall trespass no longer by
these remarks, but give you some few observations
how you should conduct yourself at table, when at
meals. Make it your study always to be clean at
meal times ; never talk much while eating ; be po-
lite and help all round before yourself. Never be-
gin any vulgar conversation at such or any time. I
have known some servants that were so rude, and
void of all discretion, as to use the most vulgar
conversation during meal times, which was a dis-
grace to any being, and ought not to be suffered in
a gentleman's family. Always behave respectfully,
and never stand up before the others are done, un-
less your business calls you. When done dinner,
put by your chair ; never leave your things about
for others to wait on you, for in this station every
one should attend to their own business. When
done, you should always offer up a blessing for the
good you have received ; for we are ordered by
the Lord to receive every thing with thanksgiving
and prayer ; therefore my friends, I sincerely hope
that these examples will become beneficial to all
who may study them. I shall now conclude
these remarks and instructions, and give some
hints to servants in general on their dress.
HINTS TO HOUSE SERVANTS ON THEIR
Now, David, in the first place I shall address
myself particularly to you, and give jou a few
hasty remarks on the propriety of servants in dres-
sing, &c. There is no class of people that should
dress more neat and clean than a house servant,
because he is generally exposed to the eyes of the
public •, but his dress, though neat and tidy, should
not be foppish or extravagant. A man that lives
in a family should have two or three changes of
light clothes for the summer, that he may always
appear neat and clean. You should likewise have
a good suit of clothes on purpose to wear while
waiting on dinner, as there is nothing that looks
more creditable than to see a servant well dressed
at dinner. It is a credit to himself and the family
whom he has the honour to serve. Make it a rule
always to brush your dinner suit, when your morn-
ing's work is done, and every thing put in order,
that you may have them ready when you want to
dress for dinner.
You should never wear thick shoes or boots in
the parlour, or waiting on dinner. You should
have a pair of light pumps, on purpose for din-
ner, and a pair of slippers is the best thing you can
wear in the morning, as they are easy to your feet
while running about and doing your morning's work;
likewise you are free from making a noise to dis-
turb the family before they are up. You must al-
ways be very clean in your person, and wash your
face and comb your hair, &c.
In the next place wash your feet at least three
times per week, as in summer time your feet gener-
ally perspire ; a little weak vinegar and water, or
a little rum is very good for this use, as it is a stimu-
lant, and there is no danger of taking cold after
washing in either. Servants being generally on .the
foot throughout the day, it must cause perspiration,
which makes a bad smell, which would be a very
disagreeable thing to yourself and the company on
whom you wait.
Now, David, there is one thing more that I must
caution you against, that is, running in debt for fine
clothes, &c. There are many servants that practise
this to their utter ruin, all through pride and vanity,
striving even to outvie their master. This is a very
unbecoming thing in a servant, and no one would
do so but an ignorant person and one that does not
know his place : because, in the first place, his cir-
cumstances do not allow it. I never find fault
with a servant to dress well, and always to be clean
and tidy, but he should not be extravagant, or go
above his ability. I have known several servants
who dressed so foppish that it looked quite ridicu-
lous, and myself have seen those very same servants
afterwards in a perfect state of poverty, and with-
out a dollar to help themselves. Consider, my young
friend, that when sickness comes on, and no friends
or relations to look to you, and no money laid up to
support you, then what good does all your fine
clothes ? does not your pride then make you repent
of your folly, and wish that you had been more
careful of your money ; instead of spending it to
support your ignorant pride and folly ? It absolute-
ly makes me think of the fable of the frog and the
ox ; where the poor conceited frog puffed himself
up, thinking to be as large as the ox, but at length
he burst. This was all through pride 'and folly ;
and this I compare to a servant that strives to be in
fashion, and spend all his money ; then sickness
comes on, and he sinks in poverty and death, and is
no more thought of than the poor frog. But,
my young friend, I sincerely hope that this never
may be the case with you, nor any other that has to
earn a living in this capacity; for the holy scrip-
ture says, that " the servant must not be above his
master ;" therefore I hope you will follow those
REMARKS ON ANSWERING THE BELLS.
This is a part of a house servant's business, that
requires a great deal of attention. Whenever your
parlour or drawing room bell rings, lose no time in
going to answer it; never wait to finish what you
are about, and leave the bell unanswered ; you
never should let the bell ring twice if you possibly
can avoid it, for it seems to be a great part of neg-
ligence in a servant ; besides, it is an aggravating
thing to those who ring twice or thrice without be-
ing answered. In the next place, when your front
door bell rings, you must always step quick to an-
swer it, before it rings the second time; because
perhaps it might be some person of distinction, or
on some business of great importance to your em-
ployers, wherein no one coming to answer the bell,
they might go away and think that the family are
not at home.
In the next place, you should never admit any
person or persons into the parlour or drawing room,
without first announcing their names to your mis-
tress or master. This you can readily find out by
saying, " What name shall I say, ma'am ?" or "sir?"
Therefore by this way you will find out whether
your employers wish to see them or not. If not,
tell them your mistress, or master, or whoever they
wish to see, are engaged, &:c. in a polite and civil
Now, my friend, I have brought you so far as to
be able to understand the whole duty of an house
servant perfectly. I shall give you in the following
pages, all the useful receipts that are requisite for
a house servant to understand, and to enable him
to do every part of his work with expedition and
All those receipts that I am going to lay before
you and the public, are of my own long experience,
which I can recommend to be genuine, as to every
thing they are set to ; and you will find them to be
1. TO MAKE THE BEST LIQUID BLACKING.
Take two quarts ofsoiir beer or porter, 'the latter
is preferable, eight ounces of bestivorj black, three
ouncesof molasses, one ounce of sugar candy, half
an ounce of gum-arabic, half an ounce of oil of vit-
riol, and one ounce of sweet oil. Let your ivory
black be well rubbed, to become fine and free from
lumps ; mix the oil with the black, and dissolve the
gum-arabic in some warm beer, then mix all the
ingredients well together, keep it corked tight, in a
jar or what you choose to put it in, shake it well
three or four times each day for two or three days,
then it will be fit for use : and if used as the direc-
tions are given in boot and shoe cleaning, it will
produce a brilliant and jet black, and is not in the
least any way injurious to leather.
2. — TO MAKE BOOTS OR SHOES WATER PROOF.
Take one pint of drying oil, two ounces of good
yellow wax, two ounces of turpentine, (not spirits of
turpentine,) half an ounce of burgundy pitch, melt
all these ingredients carefully over some hot coals,
be careful that the blaze does not get to it, or it will
catch afire ; when they are all melted well togeth-
er, take a painter's brush, or a piece of flannel tied
on the end of a stick, then apply your stuff on the
boots or shoes as hot as possible without burning
them, set them some distance from the fire, and
when they become dry, apply the stuff on again as
before, and soon until the leather will become sat-
urated and hold no more ; then put them by for
some time before you use them, until they become
dry and elastic; this method will make them im-
penetrable to wet or snow, and make them soft and
of much more durability.
3. TO CLEAN MAHOGANY TURNITURE.
Take oae pound, or whatever quantity you
choose, of best yellow wax, scrape it very fine, then
put it into a pot or pipkin for that purpose, pour
over it as much spirits of turpentine as will cover it
well ; you must let it stand 24 hours before you use
it. If your furniture is to be perfectly clear and
light coloured, you may not add any thing to it.
But if it is required to be of a dark colour, you may
add to it half an ounce of rose pink, or alkanet
root in fine powder; mix them well together; and
with a soft brush, or piece of flannel, rub quite even
over the tables, or whatever furniture you are go-
ing to clean; rub quick and even, and polish off
with a piece of flannel, and an old silk handker-
4. — FURNITURE OIL FOR MAHOGANY,
Take one pint of cold strained linseed oil, half
an ounce ofalkanet root, half an ounce of rose pink,
put them into a bottle or jar, shake it up well to-
gether. It will be fit for use in twenty-four hours ;
you must be very careful when putting it on your
furniture; apply it on with a piece of woollen cloth
or flannel, and put it very even over your furni-
ture, rub it quick and hard, until it is perfectly
worked in, then polish off with linen cloths, and
you will soon have a beautiful polish ; you must be
careful and rub the edges of your tables very
clean, that the ladies or gentlemen may not get
their clothes soiled.
5. — ITALIAN VARNISH, MOST SUPERB FOR FUR-
Melt one part of virgin wax (white) in eight
parts of oil petroleum, lay a light coat of this very
even over your furniture while warm, you may
put it on with a badger's brush ; let it stand for ten
or fifteen minutes, then polish off with a piece of
coarse soft cloth or flannel, and finish with an old
silk handkerchief. -Inexperienced servants should
be very careful how they apply any receipt at first,
they should always make the first experiment on
some article of little value.
6. — ITALIAN POLISH FOR GIVING FURNITURE A
First, melt one quarter of a pound of best yellow
wax, and one ounce of black rosin well pounded to
powder, put them into a pipkin, or something else
for that purpose, then pour over them, by degrees,
two ounces spirits of turpentine; then mix it well
together and cover it close for use. You may ap-
ply this on your furniture with a piece of soft wool-
len cloth, or some new flannel, be careful and put
it on even and light, finish off with a piece of old
silk or a handkerchief; in a few applications this
will produce a most brilliant and hard polish, and
is not so liable to be stained by the heat of the
dishes, as any other polish now in use, but looks as
beautiful as the finest varnish.
7. — TO TAKE INK STAINS OUT OF MAHOGANY.
Dilute one teaspoonful of oil of vitriol in one
tablespoonful of soft water, apply it to the parts
affected, with a small piece of red flannel, rub rath-
er light and quick until the spot disappears, then
wash off" with a little milk; rub quick until dry,
then apply your polish, &c. Spirits of salts will
answer the same purpose.
8. — AN EXCELLENT ARTICLE FOR TABLES, AFTER
Take one pint of milk, one ounce of spirits of
turpentine, two dessert spoonfuls of sweet oil, mix
them well together, put the mixture into a bottle for
use. When your tables are very dirty and stained
with wine and fruit, after a party, &c. shake up
your mixture and pour some out into an old sau-
cer, or any thing yon may have for that purpose,
dip into it a piece of flannel, and wash your tables
quick and even all over, then dry and polish off
with some old linen cloths. By this method, your
tables will become a fine light colour, and will
look most beautiful when cleaned oiF with your
furniture oil, polish, or varnish.
9. — TO TAKE THE BLACK OFF THE BARS OF POLISHED
Take one pound of soft soap, one quart of rain
or soft water, put them in a sauce pan and boil it
down to one pint, then take some of this jelly and
mix it with some emery, No. 3. and apply it to the
bars of your grate with a piece of coarse cloth.
Rub hard and quick, and it will remove the black
in a iew minutes.
10. — TO POLISH THE BRIGHT BARS OF POLISHED
STEEL "GRATES, OR FIRE IRONS.
Take some rotten-stone finely powdered, mix
with it some spirits of turpentine, one teaspoonful
of oil of vitriol, one tablespoonful of sweet oil ,• mix
all well together, and apply it with a piece of
coarse woollen cloth to the bars of your grate;
rub hard and quick, wipe hard with old linen or
cotton cloths, and polish with some dry rotten-stone
and a piece of leather.
11. — THE BEST WAY TO CLEAN A POLISHED
After you have removed the black from off the
bar, take one ounce of crocus, one tablespoonfulof
sweet oil, mix well together, then add spirits of wine
or Hollands gin, by degrees, until your mixture is
to the consistency of paint, then apply it to your
grate or fire irons, hard and quick, with a piece of
coarse woollen cloth ; wipe off with old linen or
cotton cloth, and polish with dry whiting and leath-
er. This receipt, if properly applied, gives a most
brilliant polish, and repairs brightness of steel, and
stands the fire much better than any now in use.
12. — FOR THE BLACK PARTS OR INNER HEARTH
OF A GRATE.
Take some best black lead finely powdered, add
to it the whites of three eggs well beaten, then pour
into it some sour beer, or porter, the latter is pre-
ferable, mix it well together, to the consistency of
liquid blacking, then these ingredients must be sim-
mered over some hot coals for twenty minutes ;
vfhtn cold, pour it into a junk bottle for use; apply
it on your grate with a soft brush, and polish off
quick in the same manner as you would a boot.
This will give a beautiful polish, and hold for some
time, by dusting it off in the morning, after you
make your fire, with an old cloth, and then with
your hard brush.
13. — ANOTHER EXCELLENT BLACK MIXTURE FOR
Take some good fine black lead finely powder-
ed, mix with three sour apples beat up to a paste,
then pour on some good vinegar till it is to the
consistency of blacking, and apply it in the same
manner as the preceding receipt; this will give a
15. A BEAUTIFUL SECRET TO CLEAN BRASS OR
Dissolve in one quart of rain or soft water, one
ounce of oxalic acid, shake it well up together, then
add half an ounce of butter of antimony ; bottle it
and cork close for use. This composition will not
soil any thing it touches, it is excellent for cleaning
the brass on bureaus, or the brass on the front door,
&c. It will likewise take stains out of Mahogany ;
this must be applied with a piece of mantle cloth,
or white flannel is preferable as it is soft ; wipe off
quick with a soft linen cloth, and polish with leath-
er. This will stand the heat of the fire better than
any method in use, and is clean for the hands, or
any thing it touches. Always shake it up before use.
15. — TO GIVE BRITANNIA METAL A BEAUTIFUL
Take half a pound of lump whiting, as it is free
from grit or sand, scrape it and roll it into fine povv-
der, then add to it one wine glass full of sweet oil,
and one tablcspoonful of soft soap.; mix these well
together, then add by degrees, some New-England
rum, or spirits of wine, to the consistency of cream.
Apply it to the article with a soft sponge or piece
of flannel, quick and even ; wipe otT with a piece
of old linen or cotton cloth, dust over some dry
whiting and polish with leather.
15. ANOTHER BEAUTIFUL POLISH FOR BLACK
Take the whites of six eggs, beat them up to a
froth, then add half a pound of black lead, mix well
together, then add spirits of turpentine until it is to
the consistency of liquid blacking; apply it with a
brush as you would black a boot. Polish with a
hard brush, and it will become a brilliant polish.
17. TO MAKE THE BEST PLATE POWDER.
Take half a pound of chalk, scrape it and roll it
into powder, then sift it through a fine sieve, then
mix into it half an ounce of quicksilver ; when well
mixed, add two ounces of hartshorn balls in fine
powder, then mix all extremely well together. To
use this, take some of this powder and apply it lo
your plate with your naked hand, observing to rub
it well and even all over; then polish off" with your
leather ; or take some of the powder and work it
into your shammy leather, and rub your plate per-
fectly well and even, and polish as the other.
The best way to use this is to make it wet, as you
can apply it more even, and is much the safest way
for new beginners; to wet this properly, take some
spirits of wine and wet it till it becomes to the
consistency of cream, then take a piece of soft
sponge, and rub your plate well and even all over.
Wipe off with your leather and polish with a clean
leather ; this will give your plate a most beautiful
lustre. Once a week is enough to clean with this
powder, hot soap suds must be used at other times.
18. ANOTHER WAY, MOST SUPERB, TO CLEAS PLATE.
Dissolve in one quart of rain or soft water, one
ounce of prepared hartshorn powder, mix it well
together, and put it into a saucepan on some hot
coals, so as to be scalding hot, then put into it as
much plate as the vessel may hold, that they may
be covered, let it boil a little, then take it out and
drain it over a saucepan, and let it dry before the
fire, then put in some more, and so on until you
have it all done; then put in some clean linen
rags, and leave them to soak up all the water ;
these will be excellent to clean the plates of doors
or any kind of brasses. Polish your silver when
dry, with soft leather.
19. Af^OTHER EXCELLENT PLATE POWDER, BY
J. R. W. LONDON.
Take one ounce of zinc, melt it in an iron ladle,
then put to it two ounces of quicksilver, then turn
this mixture out on some strong brown paper, pound
and roll it fine, then pound and sift two pounds of
best cake whiting, mix them well together, then
mix in half an ounce of good vermilion, rub and
mix them well up together. If you choose to use
it wet, add to some of the powder spirils of wine,
sufficient to make it the thickness of cream ; rub
your plate well and even with a piece of soft sponge
dipped in this mixture, and polish off with your
shammy leather. This powder, if properlj' made
and used, will give a most brilliant and elegant
lustre to silver, &c.
20. TO CLEAN PLATED ARTICLES OF ALL DESCRIP-
Take an ounce of killed quicksilver, this you
may get at the apothecary's, mix with this half a
pound of best cake whiting pounded and sifted,
then dried before you put in the quicksilver. When
dry, mix these well together, and put the powder
into a bottle for use ; when your plated things want
cleaning, take a little of this powder and wet it
with some spirits of wine, or New-England rum, and
rub the articles lightly over with a soft sponge.
Once a fortnight is sufficient for plated ware to be
cleaned with this powder. Good hot and strong
soap suds is the best to use for plated ware, the
rest of the time, and to be wiped quick out of the
hot suds, with soft cloths, and polished after with
your shammy leather,
21. — TO CLEAN JAPANNED TEA AND COFFEE URNS.
Take one ounce of crocus, and half an ounce of
rotten-stone, pound and mix them well together,
then sift it, let this mixture be a little darker than
the urns. You need not use rotten-stone if you
can get the crocus powder dark enough. Clean
your urns with this powder, as directed for clean-
ing plate, &,c.
22. TO PRESERVE IRON OR STEEL FROM RUSTING.
Take a piece of mutton suet, the skin part that
is over the kidneys is the best for this purpose; rub
the bars of your grate or fire irons well over with
this, then take some fresh unslacked lime, put it
into a piece of muslin and dust it well over whatev-
er you have to preserve. By this method you
may preserve iron or steel for many months, and
no damp can penetrate to them. Fire arms should
he kept well wrapped up in baize, or paper, and
laid by in a dry place. This is an excellent way
to preserve best knives that you wish to lay by for
any length of time, or that are to be exported.
23. — TO TAKE RUST OUT OF STEEL, &C.
Rub your steel that is rusty well over with a
piece of flannel dipped in salad oil, no other oil
will answer, as there generally is water in all other
kinds. When you have rubbed them well over with
the oil, then shake a little hot slacked lime over
thera and let them lay in a dry place for 48 hours ;
then take some fresh unslacked lime finely powder-
ed, and rub quick and hard until the rust disap-
pears ; then polish off with dry whiting, or crocus,
and shammy leather. This is a most excellent
plan, if only properly done, as is here directed.
24. — TO BLACKEN THE TRONT OP STONE CHIMNEY
Mix oil, varnish, spirits of turpentine, and lamp-
black, thin it to the consistency of thin paint, wash
the stone very clean with hot soap suds, sponge it
off with clean warm water, then when perfectly dry,
take a painter's brush and put on a very smooth
coat, let that dry^ then put on another, observe to
sift the lampblack before used, and this will give a
most beautiful appearance, and look like varnish.
25. — ANOTKER EXCELLENT WAY TO CLEAN BLACK
Boil one quarter of a pound of best black lead
in one piutof beer or porter, add one tablespoonful
of good soft soap; when it boils, take it off the
fire, and when you are going to polish your grate,
brush off all the dust from it, and with a painter's
brash apply this mixture quite even on the grate,
then polish it off quick with a hard brush, and you
will have a beautiful appearance to your grate.
26.--TO CLEAN MIRRORS AND LOOKING GLASSES.
Clean ofFthe fly Stains and other soils, with a
piece of soft flannel dipped in gin, wipe dry with
soft linen cloths, and polish off" with a soft dry flan-
nel and powder blue 5 finish with a silk handker-
chief; this is an excellent way to clean all kinds
of looking glasses, &c.
The author had this receipt from one of the
largest looking glass manufacturers in London.
27.— TO MAKE A BEAUTIFUL BLACK VARNISH.
Take gum lac four ounces, sanderach and black
rosin, of each one ounce, pulverise all separately ;
dissolve the rosin in a sufficient quantity of spirits
of wine, then add the sanderach ; as soon as dis-
solved, add the powder of gum lac ; mix them all
well together, and strain the mixture through a thin
linen cloth. The black colour is to be given by
mixing into it drachms of ivory black.
28. TO GIVE SILVER A BEAUTIFUL POLISH.
Scrape very fine four ounces of good white soap,
pour on it one pint of rain or soft water, scalding
hot, dissolve in that water half an ounce of wine ley
dried in cakes,(this you can get at the apothecaries)
and the same quantity of pearl ashes ; mix them
all well together, apply it with a sponge on your
silver, and wash off in hot soap suds, and dry off
with hot cloths, which you must have hung be-
fore the fire for that purpose ; afterwards polish
with your siiammy leather.
29. AN EXCELLENT MASTICK FOR MENDING GLASS,
Take whites of eggs, soft curd cheese, and
quicklime, of each an equal quantity in weight,
then begin and beat them all well together until
the mastick becomes quite smooth ; this may be
used in most all kinds of ware ; it will cement
broken glass, so as to stand fire or hot water with-
out having the smallest effect on the part cement-
ed, but stand like new.
30. A WASH TO REVIVE OLD DEEDS, OR OTHER
Boil gall nuts in white wine, and steep a sponge
in this solution, then pass it smoothly over the old
writings, &c. and they will appear directly as new
as when first wrote.
31. AN EXCELLENT WAY TO PREVENT ELIES FROM
SETTLING ON PICTURES, OR MAKING DIRT ON
Take a large bunch of leeks and soak them in a
pail of soft water for 24 hours, then squeeze the
leeks out of the water, let it stand for half an
hour, then strain it off and bottle for use ; in the
fly season take a sponge and wash your pictures
or any furniture whatever, with this solution, and
the flies will never come near it, or make any dirt
on it. This is a valuable receipt for private fam-
32. TO REMOVE FLIES PROM ROOMS.
Take half a teaspoonful of black pepper, in pow-
der, one teaspoonful of brown sugar, and one table-
spoonful of cream ; mix them well together, and
place them in the room, on a plate, where the flies
are troublesome, and they will soon disappear.
33. — -TO RENDER OLD PICTURES AS PINE AS NEW.
Boil in a new pipkin for the space of one quar-
ter of an hour, one quarter of a pound of bril. or
grey ash, and a little Genoa soap ; when it is luke-
warm take a soft piece of sponge and pass it even
all over your pictures ; when dry, pass over it
very lightly some olive die, and in five minutes
wipe it off with a piece of old silk, or soft linen
cloth ; this will make your pictures look as well,
and have as fine a gloss, as when new.
34. A VARNISH WHICH SUITS ALL KINDS OF PIC-
TURES AND PRINTS, AND MAKES THEM SHINE
Dilute one quarter of a pound of Venice turpen-
tine in one gill of spirits of wine, if too thick, add
some more spirits of wine, until of the consistency
of milk, then lay one coat of this on the right side
of the print or picture, and when dry it will shine
like glass ; if not to your satisfaction, lay on anoth-
er coat, and it will have a most brilliant effect.
35. TO TAKE INK-SPOTS OUT OF MAHOGANY.
Take a piece of clean white flannel, dip it into
some spirits of salts, apply it quick to the part af-
fected, until removed, then wash it off with a little
cream esf milk, and rub off dry ; don't let it stand
too long on it.
36.— A MOST DELICIOUS SALAD SAUCE, BY J. R. W.
Take the yolks of four hard-boiled eggs, rub
them through a sieve, and add to them one tea-
spoonful of salt, mix well up, then add two table-
spoonsful of made mustard, stir well up, then add
by one spoonful at each time, six spoonsful of
salad oil ; mix this well together until it becomes
as smooth as mustard, then put in one teaspoon-
fol of anchovy sauce, and one gill of cream or new
milk, and stir well together; and last of all put in
by degrees some good vinegar ; I don't state the
quantity of this, as some is much stronger than
others, this must lay in your own taste. Should
you make it too sharp with vinegar, add one table-
spoonful of fine white sugar in powder, this will
soften it, and give it an excellent flavour. Bottle
it for use. This will keep for any length of time,
in the hottest weather ; and is excellent with any
kind of salad or boiled slaw, and is a fine relish
with fish. Shake it well up before you put it on
37. A GREAT SECRET TO MIX MUSTARD, BY M. B.
Take one quart of water that corned beef has
been boiled in, skim off any fat that may remain,
then strain it, and when cool put it into a junk bot-
tle, then grate some horseradish, about two dessert
spoonsful, and put into the bottle and shake it well
up, and cork it tight. When you want to mix
your mustard, take whatever quantum you think
necessary, but you should never mix more than
half your mustard pot full at once, as it is better
when first mixed ; first put the flour of mustard
in a tea cup, add to it half a teaspoonful of salt,
mix well together, then put in your liquor, by
degrees, that you may not make it too thin,
mix extremely well together, until it becomes
quite smooth ; this method of mixing mustard is
absolutely the best I have ever met with, as it
much surpasses any other, both in strength and
38. TO EXTRACT OIL FROM BOARDS.
Make a strong ley of pearl ashes and soft wa-
ter, then add some fresh unslacked lime, stir it
extremely well together, then let it stand for fif-
teen minutes, and bottle it off, and cork it close.
Before you use it, have some water ready to low-
er it, as it generally is very powerful ; then scour
the part affected, and rinse it with clean soft water.
Don't let the liquor lay too long on the part af-
fected, or it will remove the colour from the
board, &c. therefore you must do it with care and
49. TO COLOUR ANY KIND OF LIQ,U0R.
Take, in coarse powder, half an ounce of santu-
lum rubium, put it into a bottle of a quart measure.
then pour on the powder three half pints of spirits
of wine, and in five or six hours it will be a very
high tincture, and will be fit to give a colour to
any kind of liquid that you choose, by pouring
some of it into the liquor and shaking it very well.
40, TO MAKE LIQ,UID CURRANT JAM, OF THE
Take four pounds of clean picked currants, put
aside two and a half pounds of them, and squeeze
the remainder; then put this in a preserving pan,
with four pounds of sugar; when come to a syrup,
put in the remainder of the whole currants along
with the one and a half pounds of juice, and boil it
to the greatest perfection.
41. A SECRET AGAINST ALL KINDS OF SPOTS ON
CLOTH OR SILK, OF ANY COLOUR.
Take a water impregnate with alkaline salt,
black soap, and bullock's 'gall ; this composition
will take out any kind of spots from any kind of
cloth, silk, &c. Rinse off with soft warm water.
43.— KOW TO MAKE ALL KINDS OF SYRUPS, WITH
ALL SORTS OF FLOWERS.
Heat in a pan half a pint of water, then put into
it sugar to the quantity of flowers; boil, skim, and
thicken it to a proper consistency ; when done,
put it into a glazed pot or pan and cover it over
with a linen cloth, through which pour the syrup
upon the flowers; these being deadened, put alto-
gether again into the same piece of linen, and
squeeze thera ; strain it into another vessel, then
bottle and cork it close ; the quantity of sugar
requisite for this syrup is generally one pound and
a half to every four ounces of flowers. Observe
that all kinds of flowers must be picked and clean-
ed of their cups and stems, and nothing but their
leaves made use of.
43 TO MAKE AN EXCELLENT CURRANT JELLY.
Dissolve in water four pounds of loaf sugar to a
strong syrup, then take four pouuds of clean pick-
ed currants, then put them into the syrup, and
boil so as to have them covered with the bubbles :
after six minutes such a boil, take the pan from
the fire, and pour the contents into a sieve, strain
off" all the liquor, then put this liquor again into
the pan, and when you want to try it take a little
with the skimmer and put it on a plate, if it con-
geals as it cools, it is fit to pot.
N. B. Those who want to spare sugar and
have a great quantity of syrup or jelly, at a small
expence, may apply only four pounds of sugar to
six pounds of currants, only observing to do it
rather more than in the manner above ; and by
this method you will save a great deal of expence
in making a large quantity of jelly.
44. A MOST DELICIOUS LEMONADE, TO BE MADE
THE DAY BEFORE WANTED.
Take and pare two dozen of good sized lemons
as thin as 3^ou possibly can ; put eight of the I'inds
into three quarts of hot water, but not boiling,
cover it close over for four hours, then rub some
sugar to the rinds to attract the essence, and put
it into a bowl, and into which squeeze the juice
of the lemons; to which add one pound and a
half of fine sugar, then put the water to the above,
and three quarts of boiling milk, mix and run
through a jelly bag until clear; bottle it, if you
choose, and cork close ; this will be most excel-
lent, and will Jceep.
45. — LEMONADE THAT HAS THE APPEARANCE
AND FLAVOUR OF JELLY.
Pare two Seville oranges, and six lemons, as thin
as possible, steep them for four hours in one quart
of hot water, then boil one pound and a quarter of
loaf sugar in three pints of water, skim it, and then
add the two liquors to the juice of six good or-
anges, and twelve lemons : stir the whole well
together, and run it through a jelly bag until clear,
then add a little orange water, if you like the fla-
vour, and if wanted, you may add more sugar ; if
corked tight it will keep a long time.
47. — TO MAKE RASPBERRY VINEGAR MOST DELI-
Put one quart of clean picked raspberries into a
large bowl, pour on them one quart of best. white
wine vinegar, the next day strain off the liquor on
one pound of fresh raspberries, and the following
day do the same, but do not squeeze the fruit, but
drain the liquor as dry as possible from the fruit ;
the last time pass it through a cloth wet in vinegar,
to prevent any waste, then put it into a stone jar,
with a pound of sugar to every pint of juice, let
your sugar be in large lumps, as it is much better;
when dissolved stir it up well, put your jar in a
pot of hot water, let it simmer, skim well and
when cold bottle and cork close.
47. — TO MAKE BEST WINE VINEGAR IN ONE HOUR.
Take some rye flour and dilute it with some of
the best and strongest vinegar you can find, make
a thin round cake, bake it in the oven, then pound
it into fine powder, then wet it as before, and bake
again ; repeat this operation three or four times,
then if you hang the last made cake while hot, by
a cord, in a cask of wine, you will have most ex-
cellent vinegar in one hour.
48. AN EXCELLENT PREPARATION FOR VINEGAR.
Take white cinnamon, long pepper, and Cyprus,
of each one ounce, round pepper half an ounce,
and two nutmegs •, pulverize each article separate,
and put them in so many different bags, then
take five quarts of the best vinegar, put into each
quart one of the bags, and boil separately each
quart for three minutes, and so on until all are
done, observing to keep each quart and bag by it-
self in different vessels ; then boil separately six
quarts of best wine, then season your cask by rins-
ing it out with vinegar, then pour in your boiled
wines and vinegars and then half fill your cask
with the worst spoiled wine, and stop it up until
the vinegar is made, then draw off what you
please, but fill up again with the same quantity
that you draw off, of your bad wine ; by this pro-
cess you can draw off and fill again for a number
of times, and it will be a most excellent flavoured
49. — A DRY POET ABLE VINEGAR, OR VINAIGRE EN
Wash clean in warm water one pound of white
tartar, dry it and powder it as fine as possi})le, wet
this with the best sharp vinegar, dry it an oven
after the bread comes out, or before the fire,
powder and wet it as before, and so on for ten or
a dozen times, and you will have an excellent vin-
egar powder that will turn water into vinegar;
this is excellent for travelling parties to carry with
50. — TO TURN GOOD WINE INTO VINEGAR IN
Put into any quantity of wine you choose, say
one gallon for the experiment, one red beet, and
in three hours, it will be sour and true vinegar.
By J. R. W.
51. TO RESTORE THAT SAME WINE TO ITS FIRST
Take out the beet, and in its stead put a clean
cabbage root, and it will return to its primary
taste in the same space of time.
52 TO CORRECT A BAD TASTE OR SOURNESS IN
Put into a clean linen bag one or two roots of
wild horseradish cut in fine pieces, let it hang
down through the bung hole into the wine, by a
piece of twine, let it stay there for two days, then
take that out, and put in another in the same man-
ner, and repeat until the wine is perfectly restored.
53, — TO PRESERVE GOOD WINE TO THE LAST.
Take the bulk of your two fists of the inside
bark of the alder tree, which is green, pour on it
one pint of the best spirits of wine, let this infuse
for three days, then strain it ofi" through a linen
cloth, then pour this infusion into a hogshead of
wine, this wine will keep for twelve years, or long-
er, if wanted.
54. TO RECOVER A PERSON FROM INTOXICATION.
Make the person that is intoxicated drink a
glass of vinegar, or a c-up of strong coffee without
milk or sugar, or a glass of hot wine. Any of
those articles are a most safe and quick remedy to
recover a person from intoxication.
25. TO MAKE RASPBERRY, STRAWBERRY, CHERRY,
AND ALL KINDS Or WATERS.
Take any quantity of the ripest raspberries,
squeeze them through a linen cloth, to extract the
juice from them, put this in a glass bottle uncork-
ed placed in the sun or on a stove until it is clear-
ed down, then pour it gently into another bottle
without disturbing the sediment, to half a pint of
this put ©ne quart of water, and sugar to your
taste, pour it from one vessel to the other, strain
it, and put it in ice to cool, this will be a most de-
licious cool drink in hot weather, and extremely
safe in perspirations.
56. LEMONADE WATER OF A DELICIOUS FLAVOUR.
Dissolve one pound of loaf sugar in two quarts
of water, grate over it the yellow of five large
lemons, then mix in twelve drops of essential oil
of sulphur, when going to mix your liquid, cut
thin some slices of lemons, and keep it cool and it
will be most excellent.
57. ANOTHER EXCELLENT LEMONADE, BY R. R.,
THE AUTHOR OF THIS BOOK.
Take one gallon of water, put to it the juice of
ten good lemons, and the zeasts of six of them
likewise, then add to this one pound of sugar, and
mix it well' together, strain it through a fine strain-
er, and put it in ice to cool; this will be a most
delicious and fine lemonade.
58. TO WHITEN IVORY THAT HAS BEEN SPOILED.
Take some soft water, dissolve in it a sufficient
quantity of rock alum, so as to render the water
quite milky, then boil this liquor, then soak the
handles of your knives, forks, &c. for one hour,
then take an old tooth brush and brush them well
over, after which wrap them in a wet linen cloth
to dry leisurely, otherwise it is apt to split. This
is an excellent plan to whiten ivory. *
69. — A COOLING CINNAMON WATER IN HOT WEATHER.
Boil one gallon of water, pour it into a gallon
demijohn, set this before the fire, then put into it
twelve cloves, two ounces of whole cinnamon, then
stop up your bottle and put it in a cool place ;
when you want to mix your liquor, put half a pint
into two quarts of water, with one quarter of a
pound of sugar ; cool it in ice before you serve it,
and it is a most wholesome and delicious drink as
you can take in hot weather.
60. — AN EXCELLENT GOOD RATIFIAj BY F. N.
Into one quart of brandy pour half a pint of
cherryjuice, as much of currant juice, as much of
raspberry juice, add a few cloves, and some white
pepper in grains, two grains of green coriander,
and a stick or two of cinnamon, then pound the
stones of the cherries, and put them in, wood and
all. Add about twenty five or thirty kernels of
apricots. Stop your demijohn close, and let it in-
fuse for one month in the shade, shaking it five or
six times in that time, at the end of which strain it
through a flannel bag, then through a filtering pa-
per, and then bottle it and cork close for use;
you can make any quantity you choose, only by
adding or increasing more brandy or other ingre-
61. A STRONG ANISE-SEED WATER.
Take halt" a pint of the best essential spirits of
anise-seoicls, put this into three quarts of the best
brandy with one quart of boiled water; if not
sweet enough, add some clarified sugar, and strain
through a jelly bag, this it a most delicious and
wholesome water, and a fine stomachic.
62. TO TAKE OFF SPOTS OF ANY SORT, FROM
ANY KIND OF CLOTH.
Take half a pound of crude honey, the yolk of a
new laid egg, and the bulk of a nut of aromatic
salt, mix all well together, then put some on
the spots ; having left it there awhile, then wash it
off with clean water, and the spot will immediate-
ly disappear. This receipt is of great importance
to servants that have the care of their masters
wardrobe, and in many other similar cases.
63. A SECRET AGAINST OIL SPOTS, fec.
Takq a piece of white soap, shave it very fine,
put it into a junk bottle with rather a wide neck
and mouth, half fill it with ley, then add to this the
bulk of a nut of ammoniac salt, and two yolks of
fresh eggs, cabbage juice and bullock's gall, of
each half an ounce weight, and one ounce of salt
of tartar in fine powder; cork your bottle close,
and lay it in the sun for four days, after which it
will be fit for use. You must apply this to the
oil spot with a piece of white flannel, rub hard and
quick, let it stand five or ten minutes afterwards,
then rince off with clean soft water, and hang out
64. TO RESTORE CARPETS TO THEIR EIRST BLOOM.
Beat your carpets with your carpet rods until
perfectly clean from dust, then if there be any ink
spots take them out with a lemon, and if oil spots,
take out as in the foregoing receipt, observing to
rinse with clean water ; then take a hot loaf of white
bread, split down the centre, having the top and
bottom crust one on each half, with this rub your
carpet extremely well over, then hang it out on
or across a line with the right side out ; should the
night be fine, leave it out all night, and if the
weather be clear, leave it out for two or three
such nights, then sweep it with a clean corn
broom, and it will look as when first new.
65. TO RESTORE TAPESTRIES TO THEIR FORMER
Shake and dust your tapestries extremely well,
then rub them well and even all over with white
chalk, which you must leave on them for twenty-
four hours ; then take a hair brush and brush ofFall
the chalk, then apply all your chalk as before,
and let them stand as before, after which, beat
them well with a light rod, and afterwards brush
them well and even with a soft clothes-brush, and
this operation will make them look as bright and
clear as if quite new.
66. TO REVIVE THE COLOUR OF CLOTH.
Pour one quart of soft water on one pound of
burnt pot-ashes ; in twelve hours after pour it ofl^
in another vessel, then put in a handful of marsh
mallow leaves, with two bullocks' galls; boil these
altogether until the leaves go to the bottom, then
set this decoction in the sun for four days, after-
wards take whatever colour you want, boil it with
the cloth in the liquor, and let it soak in the liquor
for twelve days, and the colour of the cloth will be
restored, as prime as ever.
67. TO TAKE SPOTS OUT OF WHITE CLOTHES.
Boil in one pint of soft water for half an hour
two ounces of alum, then put in two ounces of
white soap scraped fine, and one pound of alum,
let it boil for five minutes longer, then take it up
and let it stand in the cool for four days, then bot-
tle it, and with this composition you can take out
any kind of spots whatever from white cloth. Ap-
ply this with a piece of white flannel, rubbing the
spots hard and quick, afterwards rinse with clean
soft water, let the garment or piece of cloth hang
out in the air one or two clear days and nights.
Ob. A COMPOSITION OF SOAP THAT WILL TAKE
OUT ALL KINDS OF SPOTS.
Take one pound of Venitian white soap, six
yolks of eggs, and one dessert-spoonful of salt in
fine powder; incorporate these all well together,
then add a sufficient quantity of the juice of the
leaves of white beet ; then make up this composi-
tion into small cakes, which dry in the shade.
To apply these, first wet the spot over with clean
soft water, then rub it over on both sides with the
soap, then let it be rinsed in clean water, and the
spots will disappear, hang out to dry, and after-
wards brush it.
69. TURKEY CEMENT FOR JOINING METALS,
Dissolve six pieces of mastic as large as com-
mon sized peas, in as much spirits of wine as is
sufficient to make it into a liquid ; in another ves-
sel dissolve as much isinglass which has previously
soaked in soft water until soft, in brandy, as will
make two ounces in weight of strong glue, then
add two small pieces of ammonicum, which must be
rubbed until dissolved, then beat all up together j
when cool, put it into a phial and stop it close,
when you want to use it put the phial into warm
water not boiling, apply it with a thin piece of
stick formed as a knife, for that purpose.
70. TO PRESERVE THE BRIGHTNESS OP ARMS, hc
Take some strong vinegar, that of Montpelier
is best, dissolve in this some alum finely powdered,
then rub the arms with this composition, keep
them in a dry place, and they will keep bright for
years. This is an excellent thing to preserve the
brightness of polished steel grates, or fire irons, &c.
71. TO REMOVE INK STAINS FROM CLOTH, PLAID,
SILK OR WORSTED, &C.
Take one pint of rain or other soft water, dis-
solve in it half an ounce of oxalic, citric, or tartar-
ic acid ; the half ounce will be sufficient to mix
the pint strong enough, cork it very close and
shake it well ; to use it, lay the part affected over
a bowl of hot water, but not to touch the water,
and let the steam evaporate through, then shako*
up the solution and dip a sponge into it, and rub
well the part affected until the stain disappears,
then hang it out in the sun, and this solution will
not hurt the finest fabric.
72 TO PRESERVE MILK FOR TEA, TO KEEP SIX
Take as man}'' bottles as you wish to fill, wash
and dry them very clean, then fill them right from
the cows' teats ; after you have them all full, take
some new corks which you have previously soak-
ed in water, drive them as tight as possible, have
the bottles so full that there may be no vacancy
between the cork and milk, then tie them with
pack-thread or wire, as you would porter; when
you pack them by, put the bottles with their neck
down, and bottom upwards.
N. B. When you first cork them, put some
straw on the bottom of a boiler, then place your
bottles on their bottoms on it, and fill up with cold
water, make a fire, and when it begins to boil, take
the fire from under the boiler, and let it cool down.
When cool, take them out, and pack as above, in
straw or saw dust. I have frequently kept milk
for six months, and it was as fresh as when first
bottled. This is excellent for carrying to sea.
73. TO PRESERVE APPLES FOR THE YEAR ROUND.
Put them in casks in layers of dry sand ; let the
sand be perfectly dry, and each layer being cover-
ed keeps them from the air, from moisture, from
frost, and from perishing, as the sand absorbs
their moisture, which generally perishes them ;
pippins have often been kept in this manner until
mid-summer, and were as fresh then as when
74. TO LOOSEN STOPPERS OF DECANTERS THAT
Put two or three drops of sweet oil round the
Stopper close to the mouth of the decanter, then
lay it a little distance from the fire, with the mouth
of the bottle towards the heat, when the decanter
gets warm, and the oil soaked in, take a piece of
wood with a thick cloth wrapped around the heavy
end of it for this purpose, then strike ai one side,
and then at the other, but not very hard, by this
process 3'ou will soon take it out ; or instead of
putting the decanters before the fire, put them in
some boiling water, and pound them as above.
75. TAKING STAINS OUT OF BLACK CLOTH, CRAPE,
Boil a large handful of fig leaves, in two quarts
of rain or soft water until reduced to one pint,
then squeeze the leaves, and put the liquor into a
bottle, cork it tight. The way to apply this is to
rub the article with a piece of sponge dipped in
the liquor, and the slain will immediately dis-
76. TO KNOW WHETHER A BED IS DAMP OR NOT,
After the bed is warmed, put a glass tumbler
between the sheets, and if the bed is damp, the
tumbler will show drops of wet on the inside.
This rule ought to be properly attended to, and es-
pecially when you are travelling with a family, as
it is your duty to be as attentive to them as
77. TO MAKE THE BEST GINGER BEEK.
Take one ounce of powdered ginger, half an
ounce of cream tartar, one large lemon cut in sli-
ces, two pounds of loaf sugar, and one gallon of
soft water, let them be well mixed together, let
them simmer over the fire for half an hour, then
put in one table-spoonful of yeast, and let it stand
to ferment, and when done, boUle it and tie the
corks with twine, put it in a cool place, and it will
be fit for use in five or six days. This is delicious
in hot weather.
78. TO MAKE EXCELLENT SPRUCE BEER.
Take eight gallons of boiling water, add to it
eight gallons of cold, mix with this sixteen pounds
of molasses, and six table-spoonsful of best essence
of spruce, and half a pint of good yeast ; keep your
keg in a temperate place, let the bung-hole remain
open for two days, after which stop it up tight, or
bottle it off. it will be fit for use in a few days ;
you can make any quantity you choose, by either
adding or diminishing the ingredients, &c.
79. TO MAKE A BEAUTIFUL FLAVOURED PUNCH.
Take one dessert-spoonful of acid salt of lemon,
half a pound of good white sugar, two quarts of
real boiling water, one pint of Jamaica rum, and
half a pint of brandy, add some lemon peel or some
essence of lemon, if agreeable, four drops of the
essence is enough ; then pour it from one pitcher
to another twice or thrice to mix it well. This
will be a most delicious and fine flavoured punch.
80. TO CEMENT ANY KIND OF BROKEN GLASS.
Take some isinglass, dissolve it in a sufficient
quantity of spirits of wine, this will form a trans-
parent glue that will unite glass so that the frac-
ture will scarcely be perceived ; be very careful
in handling the spirits of wine, for fear that it
might boil into the fire, for this would be very
81. A BLACK VARNISH FOR STRAW OR CHIP HATS.
Take half an ounce of best black varnish seal-
ing wax, rectified spirits of wine two ounces, pow-
der the sealing wax and put it into a four ounce
phial, digest them in a sand heat, or near a fire,
until the wax is quite dissolved ; lay it on the hat
when warm, with a soft paint brush, be careful to
lay it on very even. This gives straw or chip
hats a fine stiffness and a beautiful glaze, which
will resist all wet and storm.
82. BLACKING FOR HARNESS THAT WILL NOT
INJURE THE LEATHER.
Take two pounds of hog's fat, one pound of best
ivory black, mix them well together, then add
spirits of turpentine to bring it to the consistence
of paint; apply it on your harness with a brush, in
the same manner as blacking a boot, then polish
off with another, and it will produce a beautiful
jet black, and is a great preservation to the leath-
er; almost all other compositions are injurious.
S3. TO MAKE A STRONG PASTE FOR PAPER.
Take two table-spoonsful of flour, stir it well to-
gether to make it free from lumps, then add as
much strong beer as will make it to a due consis-
tency ; boil slow for twenty minutes, let it be cold
before you use it.
N. B. Common paste may be made of flour,
water, and a little alum. To preserve paste from
souring, rats, &c. add a little spirits of turpentine.
84. A WATER THAT GILDS COPPER AND BRONZE.
Dissolve equal quantities of green vitriol and
ammoniac salt, in good double distilled vinegar,
then evaporate the vinegar and put it in the re-
tort to distil ; if in the product of your distillation
you steep your metal, and after you have polished
and made hot, it will come out perfectly well gilt.
85. A WASH FOR GOLD, SILVER, SILK, OR ANY
OTHER KIND OF EMBROIDERY OR STUFF WHATEVER.
Take bullock's galls one pound, soft soap and
honey of each three ounces, Florentine orris of
the same quantity, in subtile powder, put all into a
glass or china vessel, in which mix well to a paste
and let it be exposed to the heat of the sun for the
space of twelve days ; when you want to use it,
make an infusion of bran boiled in soft water, and
strained through a cloth, then smear the work
above with the paste, wherever it is soiled or dirty,
and wash afterwards in this bran water, still renew-
ing the above, until there is no alteration in its
colour, then wipe the places with a clean cloth,
and wrap them in a clean napkin and place in the
sun to dry ; after which you may pass it through
the polish press and the work will appear as when
86. TO MAKE IRON AS BEAUTIFUL AND WHITE
Take ammoniac salt and quick lime in equal
quantities, mix them well together, and dilute
them in equal quantities of soft cold water, then
take whatever piece of iron that you choose to
make bright, heat it red hot, then steep it in the
liquor prepared, and it will come out as beautiful
and bright as silver.
87. TO PRESERVE FURS OR WOOLLEN CLOTHES
Let the former be combed often while in use,
and the latter be brushed and shaken, and when
not wanted let them be dried and cool, then among
them mix bitter apples, which you can buy at the
apothecaries, put them in small muslin bags, and
carefully wrap them in several folds of linen, turn-
ing them up caj:efully at the ends and edges; put
them by in a dry place.
8&. TO DYE GLOVES TO LOOK LIKE YORK TAN.
Put into half or one pint of soft water, half an
ounce of best saffron, let the water be boiling, let
96. A SAFE Liq,UID TO TURN RED HAIR BLACK.
Take black lead finely powdered, one ounce,
ebony shavings one ounce ; mix these ingredients
in one pint of soft water, boil for one hour; let it
stand until fine, then bottle it for use. To apply
this, wet the comb often, and the hair must be
frequently combed; if a fine glossy black be re-
quired, you must add two ounces of camphor.
97. TO REFINE CIDER, FOR ONE BARREL.
Take one pint of brandy, four ounces of rock
alum, the whites of six eggs, half a pint of coarse
sand, and two pounds of coarse sugar.
98. TO CLARIFY STRONG OR TABLE BEER.
Take a piece of chalk as big as a common tum-
bler glass, and cut it in two pieces of equal size,
put them into your beer through the bung hole,
this wilWinswer for one barrel, and will cause the
liquor to foment and become perfectly clear and
99. A CHEAP AND WHOLESOME BEER.
Boil two ounces of hops, two ounces of pound-
ed ginger, eight pounds of molasses, in four gal-
lons of water, when it is cooled down to milk
warm, add some yeast to ferment it. This makes
a very wholesome and agreeable beer, and is
not only cheaper, but wil] keep much longer thaa
100. EXCELLENT JUMBLE BEER.
Take four table-spoonfuls of ground ginger, one
quart of molasses, ten gallons of water. N. B.
First mix the ingredients in a little warm water,
then add the whole complement of water, and
shake it briskly, and in eight hours it will be suffi-
ciently fermented, and is a wholesome and pleas-
101- TO MAKE GINGER BEER, FOR TEN GALLONS.
Take ten gallons of water, one quart of molas-
ses, ten good lemons cut in slices, ten ounces of
bruised ginger, the whites of eight eggs well beat-
en, mix all well together, boil it for half an hour,
skim it before it boils, add half an ounce of isin-
glass, and one pint of yeast ; add the yeast when
milk warm, leave the bung open for it to ferment;
when done, stop it tight to keep, or you may bot-
tle it after six days. You must tie the corks with
twine, and put it in a cool place.
102. A WASH TO GIVE A BRILLIANT LUSTRE TO
Take one quart of rain or soft water, dissolve in
it four ounces of good alum ; when the alum is
perfectly dissolved, take it off the coals and skim
it very clean, then bottle it and cork it close.
When you want to use it, dip a soft sponge into
some of this liquor, which you must pour out into
a bowl, and mix with it a little soft soap, say a
teaspoonful ; rub it well and even over your plate,
dry with warm towels and polish with leather.
103. WATER PROOF VARNISH OF THE BEST
Take linseed oil of the best quality, put any
quantity you please into a well glazed pipkin over
some red hot charcoal, in achafingdish ; then add
to the oil, when warming, the fourth part of its
weight in fine powder of rosin, dissolve them well
together ; when you want to try it, take a little of
the oil, and if it draws like thread, you may take
it off the fire ; if it prove too thin, add some more
rosin, and continue to boil; when it comes as it
should be, take whatever article that you have to
varnish, and when finished, put it in the sun to
dry, or put it before the fire, as this varnish will
not dry itself.
104. CHINESE VARNISH FOR MINIATURE
Take one ounce of white karabe or amber, and
one drachm of camphor reduced into subtile pow-
der, put them into a matrass with five ounces of
spirits of wine, and put it in the sun for twelve or
fourteen days in the hottest weather, after which
place the matrass on hot ashes for the space of one
hour, then strain it through a linen cloth, and bot-
tle and cork it tight for use.
105. TO MAKE BOTTLE CEMENT.
Half a pound of black rosin, same quantity of
red sealing wax, quarter of an ounce of bees wax,
melted in an earthen or iron pot ; when it froths
up, before all is melted and likely to boil over,
stir it with a tallow candle, which will settle the
froth till all is melted and fit for use.
1 have now set down all the receipts that I
thought were the best. I might have given a hun-
dred more, for 1 have hundreds written off, but
all these that I have put down I have tried myself,
and find them all genuine ; I shall now give you
some directions for putting dishes, &;c. on table.
DIRECTIONS FOR PUTTING DISHES ON
Soup, broth, or fish, should always be set at the
head of the table; if none of these, a boiled dish
goes to the head, when there is both boiled and
If but one principal dish, it goes to the head of
If three, the principal one to the head and the
two smallest to stand opposite each other, near
If four, the biggest to the head, and the next
biggest to the foot, and the two smallest dishes on
If five, you are to put the smallest in the middle,
the other four opposite.
If six, you are to put the top and bottom as be-
fore, the two small ones opposite for side dishes.
If seven, you are to put three dishes down the
middle of the table, and four others opposite to
each other round the centre dish.
If eight, put four dishes down the middle, and
the remaining four two on each side, at equal
If nine dishes, put them in three equal lines,
observing to put the proper dishes at the head and
bottom of the table.
If ten dishes, put four down the centre, one at
each corner and one on each side, opposite to the
vacancy between two central dishes ; or four
down the middle, and three on each side; each
opposite to the vacancy of the middle dishes.
If twelve dishes, place them in three rows of
four each ; or six down the middle, and three at
equal distances on each side.
Note. — If more than the above number of dish-
es are required, the manner of laying them on the
table must in a great measure depend on the taste
of the dresser.
Desserts are placed in same manner; — if you
have an ornamental frame for desserts, or a bou-
quet, or any other ornament, for your dinner-table,
invariably place them in the middle of the table.
THE UNIFORM POSITION TO PLACE DIF-
FERENT JOINTS, «fcc. ON TABLE.
Let the heads of fish always be placed to the
Pft hand of the carver, likewise the heads of
hares, rabbits, and roasting pigs in like manner.
An aitch bone of beef, let the silver skewer, which
is generally put into it when for a party dish,
be placed towards the left hand of the carver.
A quarter of lamb, let the thin part be put from
the carver, towards the centre of the table, with
the neck end to the left of the carver. A shoulder
and leg of mutton should be placed with the shank
of either to the left hand of the carver, unless
your mistress or master otherwise order it. Tur-
kies, geese, ducks, and fowls, are to be placed with
the heads towards the right hand of the carver.
Likewise woodcocks, snipes, partridges, and all
sorts of wild fowls are to be placed in the
like manner as above, because they are much ea-
sier to carve in this manner.
There are some people that will choose to have
the heads of turkies, geese, and ducks, put towards
their left hand, as they may then be able to come
at the stuffing more handily.
In the sirloin of beef, let the thick boney end
be placed to the left hand of the carver. The sad-
dle or loin of mutton, the rump end to be placed
in like manner.
In many large dishes that are for head and foot,
there is a place for the gr:ivy in one end of them ;
observe always to put this end to the right hand
of the carver, observing likewise not to forget the
large gravy spoon.
AH these rules you should observe, and pay
great attention to them, for in the course of time
you will find out how much trouble and diiSculty
there is in turning a large dish round, after the
company have sat down, besides, it looks careless
in the servant.
DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.
This is a part of duty, which a house servant is
seldom called upon to perform ; but in case of
the sickness of his employers, it is possible he may
be ordered occasionally on this busmessof the ta-
ble ; to be found incompetent or awkward in such
emergency would be mortifying to both master
and servant, I have therefore my young friends,
selected a few observations on this delicate and
important art for your information. A complete
and full knowledge of the business would do you
no harm; depend upon it you cannot learn too
much of every thing in the least connected with
service ; if you should never be called upon to
exercise your skill at your employer's table, you
Avill perhaps daily or frequently find use for your
talents at the servants' table, or, when you quit
service and have a family of your ovi'n ; and neat-
ness and skill are requisite in every thing you un-
dertake, and in every station, whether for your
employers, or for your equals. I would not have
you intrusive, which would be worse than igno-
rance, but let your ' light be kept under a bushel,'
always ready for modest use, if required. 1 shall
now give you directions for carving several kinds
of meat, fish, fowls, &c.
The carving-knife should be light, yet of a suffi-
cient size, and the edge very keen. In using it,
no great personal strength is requisite, as constant
practice will render it an easy task to carve the
most difficult articles, more depending on address
than force ; but, in order to prevent trouble, the
joints of mutton, veal, lamb, &c. should be divided
by the butcher, when they may be easily cut
through, and fine slices of meat taken off from be-
tween every two bones.
The more fleshy joints are to be cut in smooth
slices, neatly done; and in joints of beef and mut-
ton, the knife should alvvays be passed down the
bone by those who wish to carve with propriety,
and great attention should be paid to help every
person to a portion of the best parts. Fish should
be carefully helped, because if the flakes are bro-
ken, the beauty of it is entirely lost, for which rea-
son a proper fish slice should be used, and observe
to send a part of the roe, liver, &c. to each indi-
vidual. The heads of cod, salmon, carp, the fins
of turbot, and sounds of cod, are esteemed as del-
icacies, and, of course some should be sent to each
person in company, which denotes an attentive
degree of politeness towards your guests. In car-
ving ducks, geese, turkeys, or wild fowl, you
should cut the slices down from pinion to pinion,
without making wings, by which you will gain
more prime pieces ; but you need onlj' do this
when your party is large.
A cod's head.
Fish is easily carved. The dish now under con-
sideration, in its proper season, is esteemed a del-
icacy ; when served up, it should be cut with a
fish-slice, and it should be remembered that the
parts about the back-bone and the shoulders are
generally accounted the best. Cut a piece quite
off down to the bone, observing with each piece to
help a part of the sound. There are several deli-
cate parts about the head ; the jelly part lies
about the jaw bone, and is by some esteemed very
fine, and the firm parts will be found within the
ROUND OF BEEF.
This valuable and excellent dish must be cut in
thin slices, and very smooth with a sharp knife,
observing to help every person to a portion of the
fat, also cut in thin smooth slices, as nothing has a
worse appearance than fat when hacked. Ob-
serve, also, that a thick slice should be cut off the
meat, before you begin to help your friends, as the
boiling water renders the outside vapid, and of
course unfit for your guests.
EDGE-BONE OF BEEF.
Take off a slice three quarters of an inch thick,
all the length, and then help your guests; the soft
marrow-like fat is situated at the back of the bone
below, the solid fat will be duly portioned from its
situation with each slice you cut. The skewer
with which the meat is held together while boiling,
should be removed before the meat is brought to
table, as nothing can be more unpleasant than to
meet with a skewer when carving ; but as some
articles require one to be left in, a silver skewer
should invariably be employed for that purpose.
SIRLOIN OP BEEF.
You may begin carving a sirloin of beef either
at the end, or by cutting into the middle ; cut your
slices close down to the bone, and let them be
thin, observing to give some of the soft fat with
each slice. Many persons prefer the outside ; it
is therefore a point of politeness to enquire which
they will take.
FILLET OF VEAL.
The bone of this piece being taken out, renders
the helping of it very easy. Many persons prefer
the outside, — ask this; and if so, help them to it,
otherwise cut it off, and then continue to take off
thin smooth slices ; observing to take from the
flap, into which you must cut deep, a portion of
stuffing to every slice, as likewise a small bit of
fat. Lemon should always be served with thi»
BREAST OF VEAL
Is composed of two parts, the ribs and brisket,
the latter is thickest, and is composed of gristles,
the division of which you may easily discern, at
which part you must enter your knife, and cut
through it, which will separate the two parts, then
proceed to help your guests to whatever part they
chance to prefer.
Cut out slices, observing to pass your knife close
into the bone; at the thick part of the neck is sit-
uated the throat and sweet-bread,which you should
carve a slice of Avith the other part, that your
guests may have a portion of each. If the eye is
preferred, which is frequently the case, take it out,
cut it in two, send one half to the person who pre-
fers it, and on removing the jaw-bone, some lean
will be found, if required. The palate, generally
esteemed a peculiar delicacy, is situated under
the head : this should be divided into small por-
tions, and a part helped to each person.
SHOULDER OF MUTTOW.
Cut into the bone; the prime part of the fat
lies in the outer edge, and must be thinly and
smoothly sliced ; when your company is large, and
it becomes necessary to have more meat than can
be cut as above directed, some very fine slices
may be cut out on each side of the blade bone, but
observe, the blade bone cannot be cut across.
LEG OF MUTTON.
Wether mutton is esteemed the best, and may
be known by a lump of fat at the edge of the
broadest part, the slices are situated in the centre;
when you carve, put your knife in. there, and cut
thin smooth slices, and, as the outside is rarely fat
enough, cut some from the side of the broad end
in neat slices. Some persons prefer the knuckle,
the question should therefore be always asked ;
on the back of the leg there are several fine slices,
for which purpose turn it up, and cut the meat out
lengthways. The cramp-bone is generally es-
teemed a delicacy ; to cut it out, take hold of the
shank with your left hand, and cut down to the
thigh bone, then pass the knife under the cramp
A FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.
Divide the shoulder from the breast and ribs,_by
passing the knife under, observing not to cut the
meat too much off the bones. When the lamb is
large, put the shoulder in another dish, and
squeeze half a lemon over it, and the same over
the breast and ribs, with a little pepper and salt,
then divide the grisly part from the ribs, and help
agreeably to the taste of your guests.
HAUNCH OF VENISON.
Pass your knife down to the bone, which will let
out the gravy, then turn the broadest end of the
joint towards you, and put in your knife, cutting
as deep as you can to the end of the haunch; let
your slices be thin and smooth, the fat, which is al-
ways esteemed, to each person : you will find
most fat on the left side, which, with the gravy,
must be properly divided among your guests.
HAUNCH OF MUTTOSr
Consists of a leg and a part of the loin, cut so as
to resemble a haunch of of venison, and must be
carved in the same manner.
SADDLE OF MUTTON.
Take your slices from the tail to the end, com-
mencing close to the back bone ; let them be long,
thin, and smooth ; a portion of fat to each slice
must be taken from the sides.
This is generally divided by the cook before it
is served up. You must first divide the shoulder
from the body on one side, and then the leg, the
ribs are next to be separated in two or three parts,
and an ear or a jaw presented with them, together
■with a sufficiency of proper sauce. The ribs are
commonly thought to be the finest part; but as
this must depend on taste, the question should be
The best method of helping ham is to begin in
the middle by cutting long slices through the
thick fat. When made use of for pies, the meat
should be cut from the under side, after taking off
a thick slice.
Separate the apron, and pour a glass of port
wine into the body, and a little ready mixed mus-
tard, then cut the whole breast in long slices, but
remove them only as you help them ; separate
the leg from the body by putting the fork into the
small end of the bone, pressing it to the body, and
having passed the knife turn the leg back. To
take off the wnng, put your fork into the small end
of the pinion, and press it close to the body; then
put in the knife, and divide the joint" down.
However, practice can alone render persons ex-
pert at this; when you have thus taken off the
leg and wing on one side, do the same by the oth-
er if it be necessary, which will not be the case un-
less your company is large ; by the wing there are
two side bones, which may be taken off, as may
the back and lower side bones, but the breast and
the thighs, divided from the drum-sticks, afford the
finest and most delicious pieces.
The legs of a boiled fowl are bent inwards, and
tucked in the belly ; but the hkewers must be re-
moved before it is sent to table. To carve a
fowl, take it on your plate, and as you separate
the joints, place them on the dish; cut the wing
off, observing only to divide the joint with your
knife; then lift the pinion with your fork and
draw the wings towards the legs which will sepa-
rate the fleshy part more effectually than cutting
it; to separate the leg, slip the knife between
the leg and body, and cut the bone; then, with
the fork, turn the leg back, and the joint will give
way ; when the wings and legs are in this manner
removed, take off the merry-thought, and the neck
bones ; the next thing is to divide the breast from
the body, bj'' cutting through the tender ribs, close
to the breast, entirely down to the tail; then lay
the back upwards, put your knife into the bone
half ways i^rom the neck to the rump, and on rais-
ing the lower end, it will readily separate. The
breast and wings are the most delicate parts ;
however, the best way is to consult the taste of
your guests, by asking which part they prefer.
The skewers must be taken out before it is sent
to table, and it is then to be carved in the same
manner as a fowl. The wings, breast, and merry-
thought are the primest parts. \
Should be divided right in halves, either length-
ways or across, and helped to each person.
In respect to carving, written directions must
always fail without constant practice, as that can
alone give the necessary facility. ^
GOING TO MARKET.
Your employer will generally attend to going to
market, to suit himself; but your experience, if
you should be called upon to do this duty, is of
the utmost consequence. It is impossible to give
you particular directions for all kinds of articles
for the table ; in all cases observation and experi-
ence only can supply you with these to any degree
of perfection. I shall merely set down some of
the principal means of judging of the freshness or
goodness of provisions, in the choice of poultry ,&:c.
Beef, veal, pork, mutttfn, and vegetables, you all
are generally competent of purchasing.
In a fore-quarter of lamb mind the neck vein :
if it be an azure blue, it is new and good ; but if
green or yellow, it is near tainting, if not tainted
already. In the hind quarter, smell under the
kidney, and try the knuckle; if you meet with a
faint scent, and the knuckle be limber, it is stale
killed. For a lamb's head, mind the eyes ; if sunk
or wrinkled, it is stale; if plump and lively, it is
new and sweet.
If the bloody vein in the shoulder looks blue,
or of a bright red, it is new killed; but if black,
green, or yellow, it is flabby and stale ; if wrapped
in wet cloths, smell whether it be musty or not.
For the loin first taints under the kidney ; and the
flesh, if stale killed, will be soft and slimy.
The breast and neck taints first at the upper
end, and you will perceive a dusky, yellow, or
green appearance ; and the sweetbread on the
breast will be clammy, otherwise it is fresh and
good. The leg is known to be new by the stiflT-
ness of the joint; if limber and the flesh seems
clammy, and has green or yellow specks, it is
stale. The head is known as the lamb's.
The flesh of a bull calf is more red and firm
than that of a cow-calf, and the fat more hard
If it be young, the flesh will pinch tender ; if
old, it will wrinkle and remain so : if young, the
fat will easily part from the lean ; if old, it will
stick by strings and skins: if ram-mutton, the fat
feels spungy, the flesh close grained and tough, not
rising again when dented; if ewe-mutton, the
flesh is paler than wether mutton, a close grain
and easily parting. If there be a rot, the flesh
will be pale, and the fat a faint white inclining to
yellow, and the flesh will be loose at the bone. If
you squeeze it hard, some drops of water will
stand up like sweat.
As to the newness and staleness, the same is to
be observed as in lamb.
If it be right ox beef, it will have an open
grain; if young, a tender and oily smoothness;
if rough and spongy, it is old, or inclined to be so,
except the neck, brisket, and such parts as are
very fibrous, which in young meat will be more
rough than other parts.
A carnation, pleasant colour, betokens good
meat: the suet a curious white; yellow is not
good. Cow-beef is less bound and closer grained
than ox, the fat whiter, but the lean somewhat
paler; if young, ihe dent made with the finger
will rise again in a little time.
Bull-beef is close grained, deep dusky red, tough
in pinching, the fat skinny, hard, and has a ram-
mish rank smell ; and for newness, and staleness,
this flesh brought fresh has but few signs, the more
material is its clamminess, and the rest your smell
will inform you. If it be bruised, these places
will look more dusky or blacker than the rest.
If young, the lean will break in pinching be-
tween the fingers; and if you nip the skin with
your nails, it will make a dent; also if the fat be
soft and pulpy like lard ; if the lean be tough,
and the fat flabby and spongy, feeling rough, it is
old, especially if the rind be stubborn, and you
cannot nip it with your nails.
If a boar, though young, or a hog gelded at- full
growth, the flesh will be hard, tough, red, and ram-
mish of smell; the fat skinny and hard ; the skin
thick and rough, and pinched up, will immediately
As for old or new killed, try the legs, hands,
and springs, by putting the finger under the bone
that comes out ; if it be tainted, you will there
find out by smelling the finger ; besides the skin will
be sweaty and clammy when stale, but cool and
smooth when new.
If you find little kernels in the fat of the pork,
like hail-shot, it is measly and dangerous to be
Brawn is known to be old or young by the ex-
traordinary or moderate thickness of the rind ; the
thick is old, moderate young. If the rind and fat
be tender, itis not boar brawn but barrow or sow.
Try the haunches or shoulders under the bones
that come out with your finger or knife and as the
scent is sweet or rank, it is new or stale ; and the
like of the sides in the fleshy parts ; if tainted,
they will look green in some places, or more than
ordinary black. Look on the hoofs, and if the
clefts are very wide and rough, it is old ; if close
and smooth it is young.
HAMS AND BACON.
Put a knife under the bone that sticks out of the
ham, and if it comes out in a manner clean, and
has a curious flavour, it is sweet; if much smear-
ed and dulled, it is tainted or rusted.
Gammons are tried the same way, and for other
parts, try the fat ; if it be white, oily in feeling,
does not break or crumb, it is good ; but if the
contrary, and the lean has little streaks of yel-
low, it is rusty, or will soon be so.
HARE, LEVERET, OR RABBIT.
Hare will be white and stiff if new and clean
killed: if stale, the flesh black in most parts, and
the body limber: if the cleft in her lips spread
much, and her claws wild and ragged, she is old ;
the contrary young; if young, the ears will tare
like brown paper ; if old, dry and tough. To
know a true leveret, feel on the fore-leg, nea* the
foot, and if there is a small bone or knob, it is
right; if not it is a hare; for the rest observe as
in a hare. A rabbit, if stale, will be limber and
slimy; if new, white and stiff; if old, her claws
are long and rough, the wool mottled with grey
hairs ; if young, claws and wool smooth.
When you buy butter, trust not to that which
will be given you, but try in the middle, and if
your smell and taste be good, you cannot be de-
Cheese is to be chosen by its moist and smooth
coat; if old cheese be rough coated, rugged, or
dry at top, beware of little worms or miles; if it
be over full of holes, moist or spongy, it is subject
to mites; if soft or perished places appear on
the outside, try how deep it goes, the greater part
may be hid.
Hold the great end to your tongue or lip; if it feels
warm it is new ; if cold, bad ; and so in propor-
tion to the heat or cold, is the goodness of the
egg. Another way to know, is to put the egg in a
pan of cold water, the fresher the egg, the sooner
it will fall to the bottom ; if rotten, it will swim at
the top. This is a sure way not to be deceived.
Sound eggs may be also known by holding them
between the eye and a lighted candle, or the sun.
As to the keeping of them, pitch them all with the
small end downwards in fine wood ashes, turning
them once a week end-waj^s, and they will keep
HOW TO CHOOSE POULTRY.
If it be young, his spurs are short, and his legs
smooth: if a true capon, a fat vein on the side of
his breast, the comb pale, and a thick belly and
rump: if new, he will have a hard close vent; if
stale, a loose open vent.
A COCK OB. HEN TURKEY, TURKEY POULTS.
If the cock be young, his legs will be black and
smooth, and his spurs short; if stale, his eyes will
be sunk in his head, and the feet dry ; if new, the
eyes lively, and feet limber. Observe the like by
the hens ; and moreover, if she be with egg, she
will have a soft open vent ; if not, a hard close
vent. Turkey poults are known the same way,
their age cannot deceive you.
COCK, HEN, &;c.
If young, his spurs are short and dubbed ; but
take particular notice they are not pared or scrap-
ed: if old, he will have an open vent; but if
new, a close hard vent. And so of a hen for new-
ness or staleness : if old, her legs and comb ar«
rough ; if young, smooth.
A TAME, WILD, AND BRAN GOOSE.
If the bill be yellow, and she has but a few
hairs, she is young, but if full of hairs, and the bill
and foot red, she is old; if new, limber-footed ; if
stale, dry-footed. And so of a wild bran goose.
WILD AND TAME DUCKS.
The duck, when fat, is hard and thick on the
belly ; if not, thin and lean ; if new, limber-footed ;
if stale, dry-footed. A true wild duck has a red
foot, smaller than the tame one.
PARTRIDGE, COCK AND HEN.
The bill white, and the legs blue, show age;
for if young, the bill is black, and the legs yellow ;
if new, a fast vent ; if stale, a green and open one.
If full crops, and they have fed on green food,
they may taint there; for this, smell the mouth.
WOODCOCK AND SNIPE.
The wookcock, if fat, is thick and hard; if new,
limber-footed; when stale, dry-footed; or if their
noses are slimy, and their throats muddy and
moorish, they are not good. A snipe, if fat, has a
fat vein on the side under the wing, and in the
vent feels thick. For the rest, like the woodcock.
DOVES AND PIGEONS.
To know the turtle-dove, look for a blue ring
round his neck, and the rest mostly white.
The pigeon is bigger ; and the ring-dove is
less than the pigeon. The dove-house pigeons,
when old are red-legged; if new and fat, they
will feel full and fat in the vent, and are limber-
footed ; but if stale, a flabby and green vent.
So the green or grey plover, fieldfare, blackbird,
thrush, larks, (fee.
HOW TO CHOOSE FISH.
SALMON, PIKE, TRENT, CARP, TENCH, GRAILINQ,
BARBEL, CHUB, RUFF, EEL, WHITING, SMELT,
All these are known to be new or stale by the
colour of their gills, their easiness or hardness to
open, the hanging or keeping up of the fins, the
standing out or sinking of the eyes, and by smel-
ling the gills.
He is chosen by his thickness and plumpness;
and if his belly be of a cream colour, he 'must
eat well ; but if thin, and his belly of a bluish
white he will eat very loose.
COD AND CODLING.
Choose by his thickness towards the head, and
the whiteness of his flesh when it is cut : and so
of a codling.
If it cuts without crumbling, and the veins and
gristles give a true blue where they appear, and
the flesh a perfect white, then conclude it to be
FRESH HERRING AND MACKEREL.
If their gills are of a lively shining redness, their
eyes stand full, and the fish is stiff, then they are
158 ADVICE TO COOKS.
new; but if dusky and faded, or sinking and
wrinkled, and tails limber, they are stale.
Choose by their weight; the heaviest are best,
if no water be in them ; if new, the tail will pull
smart like a spring; if full, the middle of the tail
will be full of hard, or red skinned meat. A cock
lobster is known by the narrow back part of the
tail, and the two uppermost fins within his tail are
stiff and hard; but the hen is soft, and the back
of her tail broader.
PLAICE AN1> FLOUNDERS.
If they are stiff, and their eyes, be not sunk or
look dull, they are new; the contrary when stale.
The best sort of plaice looks blue on the belly.
A FEW OBSERVATIONS TO COOKS, &c.
Thus far, Joseph and David, I have addressed
myself to you, and might here conclude my obser-
vations; but as this book may fall into the hands
not only of those who call themselves house ser-
vants, but the cook, and every other attendant on
large or small families, 1 have appended a few
observations addressed to house servants generally,
but more especially to the cook, and assistant cook ;
and, that I might not be thought guilty of presump-
tion, in teaching what it may be thought I may not
perfectly understand myself, or, as the old saying
is 'swim beyond my depth,' I shall quote this im-.
portant part of the work from a most approved au*
ADVICE TO COOKS. 139
thor, of whose knowledge on these points there
can be no doubt. Some things mentioned may not
particularly apply to the case in hand ; but gene-
rally speaking, the remarks and advice are such as
should be read by every individual in every kitch-
en of every great family.
On your first coming into a family, lose no time
in immediately getting into the good graces of your
fellow-servants, that you may learn from them the
customs of the kitchen, and the various rules and
orders of the house.
Take care to be on good terms with the servant
•who waits at table; you may make use of him as
your centinel to inform you how your work has
pleased in the parlour, and by his report you may
be enabled in some measure to rectify any mis-
take : but request the favour of an interview with
your master or mistress, — depend as little as pos-
sible on second-hand opinions — judge of your em-
ployers from your own observations and their be-
haviour to you, not from any idle reports from the
other servants, who, if your master or mistress in-
advertently drop a word in your praise — will im-
mediately take alarm, -and fearing your being more
in favour than themselves, will seldom stick at tri-
fles to prevent it, by pretending to take a prodig-
ious liking to you, and poisoning jour mind in such
a manner as to destroy all your confidence, &c. in
your eniployers, and if they do not immediately
succeed in worrying you away — will take care
that you have no comfort while you stay.
If you are a good cook, and have tolerable fair
play, you will soon become a favourite domestic, if
your master is a man of taste ; but never boast of
his approbation, for in proportion as you think you
rise in his estimation — you will excite all the
140 ADVICE TO COOKS.
tricks that envy, haired, and malice, and all un-
charitableness, can suggest to your fellow-servants ;
every one of whom, if less diligent, or less favour-
ed than yourself will he your enemy.
While warning you against making others your
enemy, we must caution you also to take care
that you do not yourself become your own and
greatest enemy. ' Favourites are never in greater
danger of falling, than when in the greatest favour,'
which of(en begets a careless inattention to the
commands of their employers, and insolent over-
bearance to their equals, a gradual neglect of duty,
and corresponding forfeiture of that regard, which
can only be preserved by the means which cre-
If your employers are so pleased with your con-
duct as to treat you as a friend rather than a ser-
vant, do not let their kindness excite your self-
conceit, so as to make you for a moment forget
you are one. Condescension even to a proverb
produces contempt in inconsiderate minds — and
to such the very means which benevolence takes
to cherish attention to duty, becomes the cause of
the evil you wished to prevent.
To be an agreeable companion in the kitchen,
\vithout compromising your duty to your patrons
in the parlour, requires no small portion of good
sense and good nature; in a word, you must
* do as you would be done by.'
Act for, and speak of, every body, as if they
We hope the culinary student who peruses these
pages, will be above adopting the common, mean
and base, and ever unsuccesful way of ' holding
with the hare, and running with the hounds,' — of
currying favour with fellow-servants by flattering
ADVICE TO COOKS. 141
them, and ridiculing the mistress when in the
kitchen, and then prancing into the parlour and
purring about her, and making opportunities to
display all the little faults you can find (or invent)
that will tell well against those in the kitchen, as-
suring them, on your return, that they were prais-
ed for whatever you heard them blamed ; and so,
excite them to run more extremeiy into any little
error, which you think will he most displeasing to
their employers, watching an opportunity to pour
your poisonous lies into their unsuspecting ears,
when there is no third person to bear witness of
your inquiry — making your victims believe it is all
out of your sincere regard for them — assuring
them (as Betty says in the Man of the World) —
' That indeed you are no busybody that loves fend-
ing nor proving, but hate all tittling and tattling —
and gossiping and back-biting,' &c. &c.
Depend upon it, if you hear fellow-servants
speak disrespectfully of a master or mistress with
whom they have lived some time, it is a sure sign
that they have some sinister scheme against your-
self. ]f they have not been well treated, why-
have they stayed ?
' There is nothing more detestable than defa-
mation ; I have no scruple to rank a slanderer
with a murderer or an assassin. Those who as-
sault the reputation of their benefactors, and ' rob
you of that which nought enriches them,' would
destroy your life, if they could do it with equal
' If you hope to gain the esteem and respect of
others, and the approbation of your own heart, be
respectful and faithful to your superiors, obliging
and good-natured to your fellow-servants, and
charitable to all.'
142 ADVICE TO COOKS.
' Let your character be remarkable for indus-
try and moderation ; your manners and deport-
ment, for modesty and humility; and your dress
distinguished for simplicity, frugality and neatness;
if you outshine your companions in finery, you will
most inevitably excite their envy, and make them
' Do every thing at the proper time.'
' Keep every thing in its proper place.'
' Use every thing for its proper purpose.'
' Never think any part of your business too tri-
fling to be well done.'
' Eagerly embrace every opportunity of learn-
ing any thing which may be useful to yourself, or
of doing any thing which may benefit others.'
Do not throw 3'ourself out of a good place for a
slight affi-ont. ' Come when you are called, and
do what you are bid.'
Place yourself in your master's situation, and
then consider what you would expect from him, if
he were in yours.
Although there may be ' more places than par-
ish churches,' it is not very easy to find many more
' A rolling stone never gathers moss.'
' Honesty is the best policy. '
'A still tongue makes a wise head.'
' Saucy answers are highly aggravating, and
serve no good purpose.'
Let your master or mistress scold ever so much,
or be ever so unreasonable ; as ' a soft answer
turneth away wrath,' — so ' will silence, or a mild
answer, be the best a servant can make.'
' If your employers are hasty, and have scolded
without reason, bear it patiently ; they will soon
see their error, and be happy to make you amends.
ADVICE TO COOKS. 143
Muttering on leaving the room, or slamming the
door after you, is as bad as an impertinent reply;
it is, in fact, showing that you would be imperti-
nent if you dared,"
'A faithful servant will rot only never speak
disrespectfully to her employers, but will not hear
disrespectful words said of them.'
Apply direct to your employers, and beg of
them to explain to you as fully as possible, how
they like their victuals dressed, whether much, or
Of what complexion they wish the roasts, of a
gold colour, or well browned, and if they like them
Do they like soups and sauces, thick or thin, or
white or brown, clean or full in the mouth ? What
accompaniments they are partial to ?
What flavours they fancy? especially of spice
It is impossible that the most accomplished
cook can please their palates, till she has learned
their particular taste ; this, it can hardly be ex-
pected, she can hit exactly the first time, however,
the hints we have here given, will very much fa-
cilitate the ascertainment of this main chance of
getting into their favour.
The sense of taste depends much on the
health of the individual, and is hardly ever
for a single hour in the same state, such is the
Extremely intimate sympathy between the stom-
ach and the tongue, that in proportion as the for-
mer is empty, the latter is acute and sensitive;
this is the cause that 'good appetite is the best
sauce,' and that the dish we find relishing and sa-
voury at luncheon, is insipid at dinner, and at sup-
per quite tasteless.
144 ADVICE TO COOKS.
To taste any thing in perfection the tongue
must be moistened, or the substance applied to it
contain moisture, the nervous papillae which con-
stitute this sense are roused to still more lively
sensibility by salt, sugar, aromatics, &c.
If the palate becomes dull by repeated tasting,
one of the best ways of refreshing it, is to masti-
cate an apple, or to wash your mouth well with
The incessant exercise of tasting, which a cook
is obliged to submit to during the education of her
tongue frequently impairs the very faculty she is
trying to improve, "Tis true 'tis pity, and pity
"tis,' (says a grand gourmand,) 'tis true, her too
anxious perseverance to penetrate the mysteries
of palatics may diminish the /ac/, exhaust the pow-
er and destroy the index, without which all her la-
bour is vain.'
Therefore a sagacious cook, instead of idly and
wantonly wasting the excitability of her palate, on
the sensibility of which, her reputation and fortune
depend, when she has ascertained her relative
strength of the flavour of the various ingredients
she employs, will call in the balance and the meas-
ure, to do the ordinary business, and to preserve
her organ of taste with the utmost care, that it
may be a faithful oracle to refer to, on grand oc-
casions, and new compositions ; of these an inge-
nious cook may form as endless a variety, as a
musician with his seven notes, or a painter with
Receive as the highest testimonies of your em-
ployer's regard, whatever observations they make
on your work, such admonitions are the most un-
equivocal proofs of their desire to make you thor-
oughly understand their taste, and their wish to
ADVICE TO COOKS. 146
retain you in their service, or they would not take
the trouble to leach you.
Enter into all their plans of economy, and en-
deavour to make the most of every thing, as well
for your own honour as your master's profit; take
care that the meat which is to make its appear-
ance again in the parlour, is handsomely cut
with a sharp knife, and put on a clean dish, take
care of the gravy which is left, it will save many
pounds of meat in making sauce for hashes, poul-
try, and many little dishes.
Many things may be re-dressed, in a different
form, from that in which they were first served,
and improve the appearance of the table without
increasing the expense of it.
The best way to warm cold meat is to sprinkle
the joint over with a little salt, put it in a Dutch
oven, at some distance before a gentle fire, that it
may warm gradually, watch it carefully, and keep
turning it till it is quite hot and brown : it will take
from twenty minutes to three quarters of an hour,
according to its thickness ; serve it up with gra-
vy; this is much better than hashing it, and by
doing it nicely, a cook will get great credit. Poul-
try, fried fish, &c. may be re-dressed this way.
Take care of the liquor you have boiled poultry
or meat in ; in five minutes you may make it into
excellent soup. No good housewife has any pre-
tensions to rational economy who boils animal
food without converting the broth into some sort
However highly the uninitiated in the mystery
of soup-making maj' elevate the external appen-
dage of his olfactor}' organ at the mention of ' pot
liquor,' if he tastes, he will be as wellpleased with
it as a Frenchman is with ' potage a la camerani,'
146 ADVICE TO COOKS.
of which it is said ' a single spoonful will lap the
palate in Elysium, and while a drop of it remains
on the tongue, each other sense is eclipsed by the
voluptuous thrilling of the lingual nerves !'
Broth of fragments. — When you dress a large
dinner, you may make good broth or portable soup
at very small cost, by taking care of all the trim-
mings and parings of the meat, game, and poultry
you are going to use ; wash them well, and put
them into a stewpan, with as much cold water as
will cover them ; set your stewpan on a hot fire ;
when it boils, take off all the .scum, and set it on
again to simmer gently; put in two carrots, two
turnips, a large onion, three blades of pounded
mace, and a head of celery; some mushroom
parings will be a great addition. Let it continue
to simmer gently four or five hours, strain it
thro.ugh a sieve into a clean basin. This will save
a great deal of expense in buying gravy meat.
Have the dust, &c. removed regularly once a
fortnight, and have your kitchen chimney swept
once a month ; many good dinners have been
spoiled, and many houses burnt down by the soot
falling; the best security against this, is for the
cook to have a long birch broom, and e\ery morn-
ing brush down all the soot within reach of it.
Give notice to your employers when the contents
of j'our coal cellar are diminished.
It will be to little purpose to procure good pro-
visions, without you have proper utensils to pre-
pare them in : the most expert artist cannot per-
form his work in a perfect manner without prop-
er instruments; you cannot have neat work with-
out nice tools, nor can you dress victuals well with-
out an apparatus appropriate to the work required.
ADVICE TO COOKS. 147
' In those houses where the cook enjoys the con-
fidence of her employer so much as to be intrust-
ed with the care of the store-room, which is not
very common, she will keep an exact account of
every thing as it comes in, and insist upon the
weight and price being fixed to every article she
purchases, and occasionally will (and it may not
be amiss, to jocosely drop a hint to those who sup-
ply them, that she does) reweigh them for her
own satisfaction, as well as that of her employer,
and will not trust the key of this room to any one;
she will also keep an account of every thing she
takes from it, and manage with as much consider-
ation and frugality as if it was her own property
she was using, endeavouring to disprove the adage,
that ' plenty makes waste,' and remembering that
' wilful waste makes woful want.'
The honesty of a cook must be above all sus-
picion: she must obtain, and, (in spite of the num-
berless temptations, &,c. that daily offer to bend
her from it,) preserve a character of spotless in-
tegrity, and useful industry, remembering that it is
the fair price of independence, which all wish for,
but none without it can hope for : only a fool or a
madman will be so silly or so crazy, as to expect
to reap, where he has been too idle to sow.
Very few modern built town-houses have a pro-
per place to preserve provisions in, the best sub-
stitute is a hanging-safe, which you may contrive
to suspend in an airy situation, and when you or-
der meat, poultry or fish, tell the tradesman when
you intend to dress it, he will then have it in his
power to serve you with provisions that will do
him credit, which the finest meat, &c. in the world
will never do, unless it has been kept a proper
lime to be ripe and tender.
148 ADVICE TO COOKS.
If you have a well-ventilated larder, in a shady,
dry situation, you may make it still surer, by order-
ing in your meat and poultry, such a time before
you want it as will render it tender, which the fin-
est meat cannot be, unless hung a proper time,
according to the season and nature of the meat,
&c. but always as ' les bons hommes de bouche de
France,' say it is ' assez mortifiee.'
Permitting this process to proceed to a certain
degree, renders meat much more easy of solution
in the stomach, and for those whose digestive fac-
ulties are delicate, it is of the utmost importance
that it be attended to with the greatest nicety,
for the most consummate skill in the culinary
preparation of it, will not compensate the want of
attention to this. Meat that is thoroughly roasted,
or boiled, eats much shorter and tenderer, and is
in proportion more digestible, than that which is
To encourage the best performance of the ma-
chinery of mastication, the cook must take care
that her dinner is not only well cooked, but that
each dish be sent to table with its proper accom-
paniments in the neatest and most elegant manner.
Remember that to excite the good opinion of
the eye is the first step towards awakening the
Decoration is much more rationally employed
in rendering a plain wholesome nutritious dish
inviting, than in the elaborate embellishments
which are crowded about trifles and custards.
Endeavour to avoid over-dressing roasts and
boils, &c. and over-seasoning soups and sauces,
^vith salt, pepper, &;c. it is a fault which cannot be
If your roasts, &c. are a little under-done ; with
ADVICE TO COOKS. 149
the assistance of the stewpan, the gridiron, or the
Dutch oven, you may soon rectify the mistake
made with the spit or the pot.
If over-done, the best juices of the meat are
evaporated, it will serve merely to distend the
stomach, and if the sensation of hunger be removed,
it is at the price of an indigestion.
The chief business of cookery, is to render food
easy of digestion, and to facilitate nutrition. This
is most completely accomplished by plain cookery
in perfection, i. e. neither over nor under-done.
With all your care, you will not get credit by
cooking to perfection, if more than one dish goes
to table at a time.
To be eaten in perfection, the interval between
meat being taken out of the stew-pan, and its be-
ing put into the mouth, must be as short as possible :
but ceremon}'-, that most formidable enemy to good
cheer, too often decrees it otherwise, and the
guests seldom get a bit of an ' entremet,' till it is
half cold. So aiuch time is often lost in putting
every thing in applepie order, that long before
dinner is announced, all becomes lukewarm, and,
to complete the mortification of the grand gour-
mand, his meat is put on a sheet of ice in the shape
of a plate, which instantly converts the gravy into
jelly, and the fat into a something which puzzles
his teeth and the roof of his mouth as much as if
he had birdlime to masticate : a complete meat-
skreen will answer the purpose of a hot closet,
Never undertake more work than you are quite
certain you can do well : and if you are ordered
to prepare a larger dinner than you think you can
send up with ease and neatness, or to dress any
dish you are unacquainted with, rather than run
150 ADVICE TO COOKS.
any risk of spoiling any thing, (for by one fault,
you may perhaps lose all your credit) request your
employers to let you have some help. They will
acquit you for pleading guilty of inability, but if
you make an attempt, and fail, they may vote it a
Do not trust any part of your work to others
without carefully overlooking them ; whatever
faults they commit, you will be censured for ; if
you have forgotten any article which is indispen-
sable for the day's dinner, request 3^our employer
to send one of the other servants for it. The
cook must never quit her post, till her work is en-
It requires the utmost skill and contrivance to
have all things done as they should be, and all done
together, at that critical moment when the dinner
bell sounds ' to the banquet.'
" A feast must be without a fault ;
And, if 'tis not all right, 'tis naught."
" Good nature will some failings overlook,
Forgive mischance, not errors of the cook :
As, if no salt is thrown about the fish 5
Or nice crisp'd parsley scatter'd on the fish.
Shall we in passion from our dinner fly.
And hopes of pardon to the cook deny.
For things which Mrs. Glass herself might oversee,
And all mankind commit as well as she ?"
such is the endless variety of culinary prepara-
tions, it would be as vain and fruitless a search, as
that for the philosopher's stone, to expect to find a
cook who is quite perfect in the operations of the
spit, the stewpan, and the rolling-pin ; you will as
soon find a watchmaker, who can make, put to-
gether, and regulate every part of a watch.
ADVICE TO COOKS. 151
' The universe cannot produce that cook who
knows how to do every branch of cookery well,
be his genius as great as possible.'
Those who desire regularity in the service of
their table, should have a dial of about twelve
inches diameter, placed over the kitchen fire-
place, carefully regulated to keep time exactly
with the clock in the hall or dining parlour; with
a frame on one side, containing a taste table, of
the peculiarities of the master's palate, and the
particular rules and orders of his kitchen, and on
the other side, of rewards given to those who at-
tend to them, and for long and faithful service.
In small families, where a dinner is seldom
given, a great deal of preparation is required, and
the preceding day must be devoted to the busi-
ness of the kitchen.
On these occasions a char-woman is often em-
ployed to do the dirty work, but we rather advise
you to hire a cook to help to dress the dinner, this
would be very little more expense, and the work
got through much better.
When you have a very large entertainment to
prepare, get your soups and sauces, forcemeats,
&c. ready the day before ; many made dishes may
also be prepared the day before they are to go to
table, but do not do them quite enough the first
day that they may not be overdone by warming
Prepare every thing you can the day before the
dinner, and order every thing else to be sent in
early in the morning; if the tradesmen forget it, it
will allow you time to send for it.
The pastry, jellies, &c. you may prepare while
the broths are doing; then truss your game and
poultry, and shape your collops, cutlets, &c. No-
152 ADVICE TO COOKS.
thing should go to table but what has indisputable
pretensions to be eaten !
Put jour made dishes in plates, and arrange
them upon the dresser in regular order; next see
that your roasts and boils are all nicely trimmed,
trussed, &c. and quite ready for the spit or the pot.
Have your vegetables neatly cut, pared, picked
and clean washed in the cullender: provide a tin
dish with partitions, to hold your fine herbs ; on-
ions and shallots, parsley, thyme, terragon, cher-
vil, and burnet, minced very fine, and lemon peel
grated, or cut thin, and chopped very small; pep-
per and salt ready mixed, and your spice-box and
salt-cellar always ready for action, that every thing
you want may be at hand for your stove-work,
and not be scampering about the kitchen in a
whirlpool of confusion, hunting after these trifles,
while the dinner is waiting.
Nothing can be done in perfection, that must be
done in a hurry; therefore, if you wish the dinner
to be sent up to please your master and mistress,
and do credit to yourself, set a high value on your
character for punctuality : this shows the establish-
ment is orderlj'^, is extremely gratifying to the mas-
ter and his guests, and is most praise-worthy in the
But, remember, you cannot obtain this desira-
ble reputation, without good management in every
respect; if you wish to insure ease and indepen-
dence in the latter part of your life, you must not
be unwilling to pay the price for which only they
can be obtained, and earn them by a diligent and
faithful performance of the duties of your station
in 3^our young days, which, if you steadily perse-
vere in, you may depend upon ultimately receiv-
ing the reward your services deserve.
ADVICE TO COOKS.
All duties are reciprocal ; and if you hope to
receive favour, endeavour lo deserve it by show-
ing yourself fond of obliging, and grateful when
obliged ; such behaviour will win regard and main-
tain it, enforce what is right, and excuse what is
Quiet steady perseverance is the only sure
spring which you can safely depend upon to infal-
libly promote your progress on the road to inde-
If your employers do not immediately appear to
be sensible of your endeavours to contribute your
utmost to their comfort and interest, be not easily
discouraged; persevere and do all in your power
lo make yourself useful.*
Endeavour to promote the comfort of every in-
dividual in the family, let it be manifest that you
are desirous to do rather more, than what is requir-
ed of you, than less than your duty: they merit
little who perform merely what would be exacted ;
if you are desired to help in any business which
may not strictly belong to your department, under-
take it cheerfully, patiently, and conscientiously.
O^The preceding remarks and advice to cooks,
are extracted from the Cook's Oracle, a work
which should be oftener in the hands of every
Cook, but which I have seldom seen.
* N.B. If you will take half the pains to deserve the regard of your
master, by being a good and faithful servant, you take to be consider-
ed a good fellow-servant, so many of you would not, in the decline of
life, be left destitute of tliose comforts which age requires, nor have
occasion to quote the saying that. ' service is no inheritance,' unless
your own misconduct makes it so.
' The idea of being called a tell-tale has occasioned many good ser-
vants to shut their eyes against the frauds of fellow-servants. In the
eye of the law, persons standing by and seeing a felony committed,
which they could have prevented, are both equally guilty with those
A WORD TO HEADS OF FAMILIES.
It will be evident to you, my respected employ-
ers, that the foregoing observations are thrown to-
gether in a very crude and imperfect manner.
The writer has no pretensions as a scholar, but
considerable experience as a servant, and it was
his wish, however poorly he may have succeeded
in the attempt, to convey the result of that expe-
rience to his fellow servants for their instruction
and guidance. If he has succeeded in the slight-
est degree, he humbly thinks it will be more read-
ily received and read by servants, for whom it was
exclusively intended, than if written in highflown
terms, or by one among yourselves. You, my
respected masters and mistresses, will reap the
principal advantage of the diffusion of a knowl-
edge of their duties among servants, whose ig-
norance is sometimes very troublesome. The
writer, however, has farther endeavoured, in all
cases, to enforce upon the minds of servants, in
stating rules and duties, that 'might is right;' that
these rules are subject lo modification and varia-
tion at your will and pleasure. ' The servant is
not greater than his master,' neither are any rules
or regulations; 'new masters, new laws,' and
every servant must conform lo those of the family
where he takes up his residence, without demur
On the other hand, a few words might be said to
masters and mistresses, in behalf of those who are
dependent on them for their present, and often-
times for their eternal good. ' The labourer is
worthy of his hire,' and should be treated, in health
or in sickness, with pity and feeling ; if it is neces-
sary to place servants under strict surveillance,
at least they shoud be treated as fellow beings and
candidates for a future world. It would, however,
be presumption in me, a servant, to urge aught on
this subject to my superiors, 1 beg leave therefore
respectfully to conclude with the following extract
in behalf of the cook and other servants, taken
from the said Oracle : —
" A good dinner is one of the greatest enjoyments
of human life ; and as the practice of cookery is
attended with so many discouraging difficulies, so
many disgusting and disagreeable circumstances
and even dangers, we ought to have some regard
for those who encounter them, to procure us pleas-
ure, and to reward their attention, by rendering
their situation every way as comfortable and
agreeable as we can. Mere money is a very inad-
equate compensation to a complete cook ; he who
has preached integrity to those in the kitchen may
be permited to recommend liberality to those in
the parlour; they are indeed the scources of each
Depend upon it, ' true self-love and social, are
the same;' 'do as you would be done by;' give
those you are obliged to trust, every inducement
to be honest, and no temptation to play tricks.
When you consider that a good servant eats no
more than a bad one, how much more waste is
occasioned by provisions being dressed in a slov-
enly and unskilful manner, and how much a good
cook (to whom the conduct of the kitchen is con-
fided) can save you by careful management, no
housekeeper will hardly deem it an unwise specu-
lation, it is certainly an amiable experiment, to in-
vite the honesty end industry of domestics, by set-
ting them an example of liberality; at least, show
them, that ' according to their pains, will be their
gains.' But trust not your servants with the se-
cret of their own strength ; importance of any
kind, being what human frailty is least able to bear.
Avoid all approaches towards familiarity, which
to a proverb is accompanied by contempt, and
soon breaks the neck of obedience.
Servants are more likely to be praised into
good conduct, than scolded out of bad ; always
commend them w hen they do right ; to cherish the
desire of pleasing in them, you must show them
that you are pleased : —
' Be to their faults a little blind,
And to their virtues very kind.'
By such conduct, ordinary servants will often be
converted into good ones ; few are so hardened as
not to feel gratified when ihey are kindly and lib-
It is a good maxim to select servants not young-
er than thirty; before that age, however comfort-
able you may endeavour to make them, their
•want of experience, and the hope of something
still better, prevents their being satisfied with their
present state. After they have had the benefit of
experience, if they are tolerably comfortable, they
will endeavour to deserve the smiles of even a
moderately kind master, for fear they may change
for the worse.
Life may indeed be very fairly divided into the
seasons of hope and fear. In youth, we hope eve-
ry thing may be right ; in age we fear every
thing will be wrong.
Do not discharge a good servant for a slight
' Bear and forbear, thus preached the stoic sages,
And iu two words include the sense of pages.' — Pope.
Human nature is the same in all stations ; if you
can convince your servants, that you have a gene-
rous and considerate regard for their health and
comfort, why should you imagine that they will be
insensible to the good they receive?
Impose no commands but what are reasonable,
nor reprove but with justice and temper ; the best
way to ensure which, is never to lecture them,
till at least one day after they have oifended you.
If they have any particular hardships to endure
in your service, let them see that you are con-
cerned for the necessity of imposing it.
If they are sick, remember you are their patron
as well as their master •, not only remit their la-
bour, but give them all the assistance of food, phy-
sic, and every comfort in your power. Tender
assiduity about an invalid is half a cure, it is a
balsam to the mind, which has a most powerful
effect on the body, soothes the sharpest pains, and
strengthens beyond the richest cordial.
Ye, who think that to protect and encourage
virtue, is the best preventative from vice, give
your female servants liberal wages.
' Charity should begin at home,' — ' prevention
is preferable to cure,' but I have no objection to
see your names ornamenting the list of subscrib-
ers to foundling hospitals, and female peniten-
To say nothing of the deleterious vapours and
pestilential exhalations of the charcoal, which
soon undermine the health of the heartiest, the
glare of a scorching fire and the smoke so bane-
ful to the eves and the complexion, are continual
and inevitable dangers ; and a cook must live in
the midst of them, as a soldier on the field of bat-
tle, surrounded bj bullets, and bombs, and Con-
greve's rockets, with this only difference, that for
the first, every day is a fighting day, that her war-,
fare is almost always without glory, and most
praiseworthy achievements pass not only without
reward, but frequently without even thanks; for
the most consummate cook is, alas ! seldom no-
ticed by the master, or heard of by the guests;
who, while they are eagerly devouring his turtle,
and drinking his wine, care very little who dressed
the one, or sent the other.
The greatest care should be taken by the man
of fashion, that his cook's health be preserved.
Cleanliness, and a proper ventilation to carry
off smoke and steam, should be particularly at-
tended to in the construction of a kitchen ; the
grand scene of action, the fire-place, should be
placed where it may receive plenty of light.
Hitherto the contrary has prevailed, and the poor
cook is continually basted with her own perspira-
It is almost impossible for a cook to attend to
the business of the kitchen with any certainty of
perfection if employed in other household con-
cerns. It is a service of such importance, and so
difficult to perform even tolerably well, that it is
sufficient to engross the entire attention of one
This is a maxim "which is neither understood
nor admitted in some families, where the cook is
expected to be a house servant also, and coals are
meted out to her by the quart, and butter by the
If the master and mistress of a family will some-
times condescend to make an amusement of this
art, they will escape a number of disappointments,
&c. which those who will not, must suffer, to the
detriment of both their health and their fortune."
DIRECTIONS HOW TO MAKE A FIRE OF
And now, Joseph and David, I must address a
few ' last words' to you on the subject of making
coalf^-es. Having put down all that need be said
in respect to employers and servants in their con-
duct towards each other, I wish to add some very
superior directions for making fires of what is
called anthracite coal, otherwise called Lehigh,
Rhode Island, or any hard coal.
Very few servants at first understand the method
of kindling and continuing a fire of Lehigh coal,
many will never learn, and many more from errone-
ous instructions, whilst they think they understand
it, make but a bungling piece of work of it. 1 had
prepared some observations on this subject to be
inserted among the directions and receipts, but
have omitted them in order to give room to the
following full account and directions, and as our
book is intended to be useful to servants, it must
be granted that a knowledge how to make a Le-
high coal fire, when it is becoming so common in
this country, is quite an acquisition.
I wish my fellow servants to read the rules very
attentively. They are very humorous, but very
true, and they lay down a plain and easy method
for preparing and burning this kind of coal. These
rules were first published in the 'New York Amer-
ican,' — and people thought them a burlesque upon
the use of this kind of fuel, but experience has
made them acknowledge that they are most excel-
lent and true, and hundreds have enjoyed the
comforts of a hard coal fire made according to the
CHAPTER I. OF BUYING AND BREAKING.*
1. Buy from the vessel, if possible ; for a chal-
dron there is more than at the yard. And remem-
ber that every seller of coal is a cheat.
2. Stand by and see that large pieces only are
put into the cart, for a cart of very large pieces,
when broken up, makes a cart and a quarter of
3. Refuse a load that appears to contain dust,
because Lehigh dust is clear waste, and enough in
all conscience is made in the breaking.
4. Break the coal before housing it, unless 3'-ou
would have to break it yourself at the risk of ei-
5. Do not be hoaxed out of a dollar for a ham-
mer made expressly for the purpose of breaking
Lehigh, the family axe is just as good.
6. Do not take a man from the yard with his
patent hammer, to break your coal for you, unless
you would pay twice what the job is worth, and
what a dozen, in less than five minutes after th^
coal is dumped, will offer to do it for.
7. In breaking, see that each piece is broken by
itself on the pavement, and not as is usual, on the
* This coal is sold by weight in Boston; and broken up at the yard,
at an extra charge of fifty cents per ton.
mass, unless you wish to burn half the coal as
8. Make the man who breaks carry in as fast
as he breaks, whereby much dust will be saved.
9. Let the pieces into which it is broken be
about as large as your fist, if your hand is rather a
small one ; otherwise, about the size of your
wife's, provided her hand is something larger than
common ; or, about the size of a half-pint tumbler.
10. Watch the fellow who breaks, or he will
not break half small enough — or he will break it
on the mass — or he will use a bushel up as mis-
siles against the boys, cows or pigs — or he will
take Mi-e to wet it all in the gutter before he
takes Wu p.
11. When the coal is in, proceed to the mystery
of burning, which deserves a separate chapter.
This subject however is better handled under
the two heads, of kindling, and of replenishing
CHAPTER II. — OF THE KINDLING.
1. This is a great mystery, therefore proceed
with caution and with a mind divested of all pre-
2. Let the grate be perfectly cleared of all for-
eign substances, and begin the fire at the bottom.
3. The best material for kindling is charcoal,
unless perhaps dry hickory be preferred ; the lat-
ter is much cheaper — not absolutely however, that
I know of, but it is relatively. For, in relation to
the cook, it may be affirmed that half the charcoal
which you by for kindling will go into the kitchen
fire to save trouble. The cheapest method is
this : buy a load of dry hickory, stipulate that it
shall be large, have it sawed three times — the
wood will now be in junks, which you may defy
the cook to burn — split it up as fast as wanted and
no faster. Some say that Liverpool is the cheap-
est kindler. It inay be at six dollars a chaldron,
but it is not at sixteen dollars: and then you
must have wood to kindle the Liverpool.
4. Having got the kindling, proceed to the
grate. Throw into it first live coals from the
kitchen, then lay on the charcoal or hickory, be
not too sparing, — then place loosely, and with the
fingers, fair pieces of Schuylkill, Lehigh, or Rhode
Island of the orthodox size. I advise the use of
the fingers, because the work is done quickejrthan
with, the tongs, from which the smooth Schi^lkill
perpetually slips. Let the coal be piled as -high
as the grate will allow.
6. If you are in a hurry, put up the blower; if
not, do not use it, for the hard coal kindles much
better without forcing. The blower makes a
quicker fire, but a worse one, for the outside of
the coals is burned before the inside is even heat-
ed. When the blower is removed, the heat sud-
denly subsides; the coals (Lehigh especially) are
found encrusted with a while coating of hard ash-
es, which renders them almost incombustible, and
the fire afterwards becomes very dull.
6. If the process of kindling fails, begin all over
again. Failure most frequently proceeds from
stinginess in the material of kindling. Better be
prodigal of it than have the fire go out, and the
grate all disembowelled a second time. Horresco
7. The fire now being well kindled but this
is the subject of another chapter.
CHAPJER in. or REPLENISHING AND PERPET-
1. The fire being now well under way, it will
need to be fed but three times during the day and
evening. The first replenishing should take place
iaimediately after breakfast, when the family
breaks up, the gentlemen retreating to the count-
ing-room, office, or study, and the ladies to their
dressing-rooms ; the second, about an hour before
dinner ; the third, a little into the evening.
2. If my readers are willing to be truly econo-
mical, let them replenish a fourth time, viz. at
going to bed — which I call the perpetuating process.
Since, if it be done properly^ the fire need be kin-
dled but once for the whole winter, say on the 1st
day of November, and thus an immense amount of
kindling matter may be saved.
3. The method of perpetuating is exceedingly
simple, and consists merely in adding a few pieces
of coal at 11 o'clock say, and then covering the
whole with cinders and ashes, usque satictatura —
i. e. till you have shovelled up as much as the grate
can bear. In the morning ail you have to do, is
to clap on the blower, and presto, the fire before
you is red hot. Following this plan, my parlour
has always been comfortable at breakfast.
4. Let not the ladies murmur: the grate can
still be cleaned. When the servant first approach-
es the grate in the morning, every thing is calm,
quiet, slumbering and cool— you would hardly be-
lieve the fire to be there : and the brass can there-
fore be polished without the least hindrance. And
not till that is done should the blower be applied.
CHAPTER IV. — OP THE POKER.
1. A judicious use of the poker is essential to
the well-being of an anthracite fire. This is the
most delicate part of the science of coal burning,
and the strictest attention should be given to it.
So nice a matter is this, that 1 am almost ready tp
say, that I can form my opinion of a man's intel-
lect from his application of the poker as well as
his pleading, preaching, or physicking.
2. An ignorant, meddlesome, or nervous person
you will often see thrusting in the poker at all ad-
ventures, without rhyme or reason — as often mar-
ring as making the fire. In a cold winter day
particularly, the poker should always be kept out
of their reach. They are unworthy its honors.
3. llie legitimate office of the poker, in the
case of a hard coal fire, is to clear away the ashes
■which accumulate on the lower bars, and promote
a free circulation of air. Not to quicken the blaze
by brealiing a large coal in pieces, or by changing
the position of pieces, as in fires of Liverpool coal.
4. A fire should be poked when at its zenith — if
you wait till it is much below that, your poking
will only poke it out ; the more you poke the less
it will burn.
5. If the fire, from having been too long neglec-
ted, appear to be in a doubtful state, hesitating
between life and death — never touch a poker to it,
it will be the death of it — never stir it — scarce
look or breathe upon it, but with the step of a
ghost, clap on the blower, and if the vital spark be
not wholly extinct, the air will find it out, and in a
few moments blow it up to a generous heat — then
gradually add fresh coal in small clean pieces, de-
void of dust, and j'our fire is safe. — Servants never
learn this mystery, the}' always fly to the poker in
every case of distress, and by their stupid use of it,
double their own labour and vex the mistress of the
6. This direction should be particularly observ-
ed in the morning, when a fire has been perpetu-
ated. No coal should be added, nor the fire touched
till after the blower has been up and done its
work. It will ofien be found, especially in the
case of the Schuylkill coal, far preferable to Le-
high— that this alone will furnish a sufficient heat
for the breakfast hour ; which is a demonstration
that it is no waste, but a clear saving, to perpetu-
ate the fire in the manner laid down.
7. Many more niceties might be enumerated
touching the poker; but I refrain and willingly
leave something to the imagination of the reader.
I conclude, as the preachers say, with only
one practical remark — that you will never have a
good anthracite fire, till you have broken your hus-
band, brother, or wife, of the mischievous habit
of poking. It is surely an unseemly habit in itself,
as well as an injurious one to the fire. It shows
too a mcddleson:c, prying, insinuating disposition;
and I can never help thinking, when I see one of
this sort poking the coals, that he only wants the
opportunity to thrust himself into my private affairs.
CHAPTER V. CONTAINING MISCELLANIES.
1. If the savings bank is a good thing in Wall-
street, it is a belter thing in our own houses. If
we save at home, we need not put our money
there, we shall be rich enough without money at
interest. We waste in nothing more than the use
of hard coal. The cinders which I see every day
lying in the streets, nay before my own door,
would, if gathered up, afford fuel to many a poor
family; yet I confess that I do not see how the
evil is to be remedied. The cinders get so min-
gled with the ashes, that it is difficult to separate
them, and the servants will not do it. But till a
way is discovered of saving them, a Schuylkill may
be a clean and hot fire, but it will not be a cheap
one. Of Liverpool coal you can burn every atom.
2. The blower should questionless be the size -
of the whole grate ; but it should be used with
3. As to the form of grates, I think on the
whole, that the Lehigh grate with horizontal front
bars, and. rake ones for the bottom, possesses the
greatest advantages. — There is the greatest objec-
tion to one of the common Liverpool constructions,
which is that the floor of it, the bottom bars, are
altogether too thickly set. The ashes cannot fall
through, but collect upon, then deaden, and finally
extinguish the fire, while the coal is not half con-
sumed. In order to keep the fire a-going at all,
there must be a very frequent clearing away of
the ashes with the poker. A practice to be dep-
recated, as it tends to generate the worst habits.
I had sketched the heads of a couple of chap-
ters on the merits of anthracite in general, and on
the relative excellencies of Lehigh, Schuylkill,
and Rhode Island, but I must defer them to some
other time, and in the meanwhile I commend my
readers to the kind care of a spirit-stirring Schuyl-
CHAPTER VI. — OF THE THREE COALS aJJD THEIR
ADVANTAGES OVER LIVERPOOL.
1. As to the general merits of hard coal over
Liverpool or any other bilumenous coal — I place
cleanliness at the very top of its virtues, —
cleanliness as to smoke, dust, or smell. Were
they at the same price, and of the same endur-
ance, I should take without hesitation the hard
coal, it is so infinitely cleaner. Burn Liverpool,
and your clothes are smutted. — your flesh begrim-
med— your furniture dirtied — your walls blackened,
and wherever there happens to be a crack, seam-
ed with long tapering streaks of soot — your carpets
soiled, and when taken up, if there are cracks in
your floor, are found indelibly stained with cor-
responding lines of smut, to such a degree that
you are defeated in your economical purpose of
wearing them next year the wrong side up. I say
nothing of the filthy smut that deposites itself on
your books and papers — of the unnumbered cob-
webs brought to light by the smoke and dust gath-
er ;g on them, which might else have hung undis-
cerned for months or years — of those globules of
pure greasy black in the shape oi polly-wogs that
go sailing round the room, and light on your shirt
collar or cheek, where they are unwillingly rub-
bed in, while you, like Malvolio, cross-gartered,
parade yourself in the streets, and wonder to see
every one smile as he passes. And then, the
stench of this vile coal, when^a strong north-
wester, or whatever the wind is that nauseates
the throat of your chimney, blows the smoke in
Stygian puffs into your parlour and face — boh!
suicide might be traced to it.
But burn anthracite, and the whole scene is
changed. Whitewash your parlours in the spring
or autumn, and the white is just as fresh and pure
at the end of a long winter as at first. After three
months fire in my parlour, I have been unable to
perceive the slightest dinginess in the walls, ceil-
ing, or cornice. — A matter of the greatest conse-
quence in those houses where the cornice has its
oak leaves, rosettes, dentals, and nobody knows
what more, of architectural ginger-bread work.
For, by frequent white-washings, though done with
ever so much care, and with the nicest Paris white,
the fine sharp edges, graceful curves, and delicate
cavities on which the beauty of the cornice wholly
depends, are lost, being cased over or filled up by
the muddy brush of the black white-washer. The
dust too, which hard coal makes, though light and
fine, is clean and pure, and easily dislodged from
the mantle piece and furniture, without leaving the
least trace of its presence. Its visibilil3% wherev-
er it does light, serves also to keep the lady of the
house on the alert, and the dusting-cloth in more
frequent action. And as to smell, it has infinitely
the preference over the bitumenous coals. It sa-
vours of sulphur to be sure, and the associations
are by no means agreeable: but so do the Con-
gress waters smell of sulphur, and taste too, yet we
travel 500 or 1000 miles to enjoy it. JBut the
smell, however, cannot be denied to be a pure,
wholesome, medical one, though perhaps now and
then a little too strong, especially from the Schuyl-
kill. The Rhode Island is remarkable for being
wholly innocent of the fumes that proceed both
from Lehigh and Schuylkill. A great merit surely.
2. As to durability. All kinds of hard coal
stand the heat remarkably well. But I confess
they do not stand it so well as I could wish. They
do burn out. The best will consume away after
a while. The truth is, that though a fire of An-
thracite will, to be sure, last longer than one of
Liverpool, yet a chaldron of anthracite will not
last a whit longer than a chaldron of Liverpool.
And the reason is, that while a peck of Liverpool
makes as good a fire as is ordinarily wanted in the
coldest weather, it takes a bushel of Anthracite.
If a hard coal fire therefore lasts longer, it ought
to, in all conscience, for it is four times as big. I
state the case in round terms, but 1 am persuaded
that they represent the truth very nearly : yet, if
there is no great cheapness, there is great comfort
in a hard coal fire, in its steadiness, constancy, and
trust-worthiness. Like a man of integrity and
consistency, you always know where to find it. ]t
plays you no tricks, but maintains the same sober,
equal demeanour. When you go out, if you just
cast a look at the grate, provided you have studied
the subject properly, you know just how long you
can he gone and find a good fire when 3'ou return.
You can tell with great exactness whether it will
stand 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 hours longer, But a Liver-
pool fire deceives you perpetually. Yow left per-
haps a good fire and ample coal on, to last till you
should get back; but when you enter your par-
lour, shivering with cold, all is black — the fire has
either gone out, leaving the half-burnt coal all
bridged over the grate ; or, having found a vent
through the superincum!)ent mass, the draught thus
created has whistled it all away, in a manner alto-
gether rapid, costly and provoking.
3. As to the Heat. — With a right furious draught,
in a grate properly constructed, 1 believe that the
hard coal in an equal quantity would yield a fiercer
heat than Liverpool. But in a sluggish grate,
where the hard coal burns slowly, it is with much
ado that a small room can be kept warm with it,
■while Liverpool frequently renewed and judicious-
ly poked, would, drive you out of it. Take an
equal weight of each and subject each to the high-
est draught, and I have no doubt that the anthra-
cite would yield vastly more heat — more intense
and for a longer period than Liverpool. It is said
that the Rhode Island makes a hotter fire than ei-
ther of the others, and from a short trial I am in-
clined to believe that it is true. It certainly
makes more flame— much more — as the trial of it
at M'Queen's furnace proved, and as my own ex-
perience has proved also. A fire of Rhode Island
is, too, more beautiful than one of Lehigh or
Schuylkill. The flame is indeed exceedingly beau-
tiful. You see all sorts of colours issuing from the
lop of the fire and blending together ; rose, pink,
purple, violet, red and blue, now separate and dis-
tinct, and now weaving together. What it is that
occasions this I know not. It may be the same
mysterious cause that produces in Newport and
the neighbourhood of the mines the most beautiful
women. Every one knows that a Newport lady
and beauty are almost convertible terms. It is a
singular coincidence too, and well worth noticing,
that, as the external of Rhode Island coal is ex-
ceedingly unprepossessing while the flame is so
beautiful, so nothing can be more dismal than the
outward aspect of Newport, though so much beau-
ty lies hidden beneath. Philosophers might per-
haps speculate profitably on these analogies.
4. But I begin to prose. Old age, however,
must be allowed its privileges.
CHAPTER Vn. — THE HARD COALS BRIEFLY CON-
I do not intend saying much on this part of my
subject, because of Rhode Island I know but little,
and there is not after all, perhaps, much to be
said. Besides, it will be construed into a piece of
sheer prejudice and ill-nature by the wives of
stockholders, if I should exalt one coal to the inju-
ry of that in which their husbands hold stock. To
avoid an evil like this I shall say but a word, and
leave the subject. I am afraid, however, that I
shall certainly bring the wrath of many down upon
my head by what little I do say — for in one word I
do think the Schuylkill is the best of the three,
and for this reason, that it burns the easiest. Who
says it does not, I freely say does not know where-
of he affirms, or he is prejudiced, while I aver that
I am free of all prejudice.
The Lehigh, under similar circumstances of
draught, will grow dull and go out, while the
Schuylkill would have burned freely.
The Schuylkill burns itself up much more per-
fectly than Lehigh, which will oftentimes go out,
leaving the grate half full of half burnt coal.
In perpetuating the fire, the pre-eminence of
Schuylkill is particularly observable, it keeps fire
through the night much better than Lehigh.
In breaking, Schuylkill breaks hard, Lehigh
harder, Rhode Island least hard. Comparing
them with strict grammatical precision, Rhode
Island is hard, Schuylkill harder, Lehigh hardest,
both to break and burn.
As to price, Schuylkill and Lehigh are cheap,
comparative wanting, Rhode Island cheapest-
In respect of beauty of fracture, that of Lehigh
is clean and smooth, that of Schujlkill exceedingly
brilliant, of Rhode Island hideously ugly.
As to combustion, that of Rhode Island is the
most complete, and the residue the least.
In regard to ashes and dirt, they are about alike :
Lehigh ashes being whitest, Schuylkill darker, and
Rhode Island darker still. Lehigh perhaps makes
the least ashes, though it leaves the most of a hard
incombustible cinder. And Rhode Island perhaps
makes the most ashes, while as far as I have dis-
cerned, it leaves nothing unburnt.
Many other slight -comparisons suggest them-
selves, but they would be even less to the purpose
than those I have already indulged in.
It has been hardly fair, perhaps, to our neigh-
bour of Rhode Island to bring her into the lists, as
we have not probably had a fair specimen of it yet
in the market. What we have had, it is well
known was water-soaked, by no means in a fit state
for the grate. But there is every reason to be-
lieve that when the mines have been somewhat
further opened, and the coal has been properly
exposed in the drying house, it will burn with even
more facility than the Schuylkill. From the assu-
rances of one who has burned it in this perfectly
dry slate, it cannot be doubted ; and on his assu-
rances, one of the above comparisons is grounded.
If, therefore, it shall the next year be offered at
six or seven dollars the chaldron, we may at length
be in possession of a cheap as well as good fuel.
I tear myself, Messrs. Editors, reluctantly from
this dirk but delightful theme. If I thought you
would print more 1 would write more, but your
patience must be exhausted.'
1 will only say, in conclusion, that could I utter
myself in the language of our first poet, now hap-
pily a citizen of our city, I should think it no pro-
fanation of my powers to employ them in singing
the beauites of the many-coloured Schuylkill.
COMPILED rOR THE USE OP HOUSE SERVANTS.
Many well-meaning servants are ignorant of the
best means of managing, and thereby waste as
much as would maintain ft small family, besides
causing the mistress of the house much ciiagrin by
their irregularity : and many families, from a want
of method, have the appearance of chance rather
than of regular system. To avoid this, the follow-
ing hints may be useful as well as economical : —
iEvery article should be kept in that place best
suited to it, as much waste may thereby be avoid-
Vegetables will keep best on a stone floor, if the
air be excluded, — Meat in a cold dry place. — Su-
gar and sweetmeats require a dry place; so does
salt. — Candles cold, but not damp. — Dried meats,
hams, &c. the same. — All sorts of seeds for pud-
dings, saloop, rice, &;c. should be close covered,
to preserve from insects ; but that will not pre--
vent it, if long kept.
Bread is so heavy an article of expence, that all
waste should be guarded against; and having it
cut in the room will tend much to prevent it. It
should not be cut until a day old. Earthen pans
»nd covers keep it best,
Straw, to lay apples on, should be quite dry, to
prevent musty taste.
Large pears should be tied up by the stalk.
Basil, savoury, or knotted marjoram, or thyme,
to be used when herbs are ordered ; but with
discretion, as they are very pungent.
The best means to preserve blankets from moths
is to fold and lay them under the feather-beds that
are in use ; and they should be shaken occasion-
ally. When soiled, they should be washed, not
Soda, by softening the water, saves a great deal
of soap. Jt should be melted in a large jug of
water, some of which pour into the tubs and boil-
er ; and when the latter becomes weak, add more.
The new iniprovement in soft soap is, if properly
used, a saving of near half in quantity ; and though
sometimes dearer than the hard, reduces the price
of washing considerably.
Many good laundresses advise soaping linen in
warm water the night previous to washing, as facil-
itating the operation with less friction.
Sonp should be cut with a wire or twine, in pie-
ces that will make a long square when first brought
in, and kept out of the air two or three weeks ;
for if it dry quick, it will crack, and when wet,
break. Put it on a shelf, leaving a space be-
tween, and let it grow hard gradually. Thus, it
will save a full third in the consumption.
Some of the lemons and oranges used for juice
should be pared first, to preserve the peel dry;
some should be halved, and when squeezed,- the
pulp cut out, and the outsides dried for grating.
If for boiling in any liquid, the first way is best.
When these fruits are cheap, a proper quantity
should be bought and prepared as above directed,
especially by those who live in the country, where
ihey cannot always be had; and they are perpet-
ually wanted in cookery.
When whiles of eggs are used for jelly, or other
purposes, contrive to have pudding, custard, &,c^
to employ the yolks also. Should you not want
them for several hours, beat them up with a little
water, and put them in a cool place, or they will
be hardened and useless. It was a mistake of old,
to think that the whites made cakes and puddings
heavy ; on the contrary, if beaten long and sepa-
rately, they contribute greatly to give lightness,
are an advantage to paste, and make a pretty dish,
beaten with fruit, to set in cream, &:c.
If copper utensils be used in the kitchen, the
cook should be charged to be very careful not to
let the tin be rubbed off, and to have them fresh
done when the least defect appears, and never to
put by any soup, gravy, &ic. in them, or any metal
utensil ; stone and earthen vessels should be pro-
vided for those purposes, as likewise plenty of
common dishes, that the table-set may not be used
to put by cold meat.
Tin vessels, if kept damp, soon rust, which
causes holes. Fenders and tin linings of flower-
pots, &c. should be painted every year or two.
Vegetables soon sour, and corrode metals and
glazed red ware, by which a strong poison is pro-
duced. Some years ago, the death of several gen-
tlemen was occasioned at Salt hill, (London,) by
the cook sending a ragout to the table, which she
had kept fi-om the preceding day in a copper ves-
sel badly tinned.
Vinegar, by its acidity, does the same, the glaz-
ing being of lead or arsenic.
To cool liquors in hot weather, dip a cloth in
cold water, and wrap it round the bottle two or
three times, then place it in the sun : renew the
process once or twice.
The best way of scalding fruits, or boiling vine-
gar, is in a stone jar on a hot iron hearth ; or by
putting the vessel into a saucepan of water, called
If chocolate, coffee, jelly, gruel, bark, &c. be
suffered to boil over, the strength is lost.
The cook should be charged to take care of
jelly-bags, tapes for the collared things, &:c. which,
if not perfectly scalded, and kept dry, give an un-
pleasant flavour when next used.
Cold water thrown on cast-iron, when hot, will
cause it to crack.
A cook must be quick and strong of sight: her
hearing most acute, that she may be sensible when
the contents of her vessels bubble, although they
be closely covered, and that she maybe alarmed
before the pot boils over: her auditory nerve
ought to discriminate (when several saucepans are
in operation at the same time) the simmering of
one, the ebullition of another, and the full-toned
warbling of a third.
It is imperiously requisite that her organ of smell
be highly susceptible of the various effluvia, that
her nose may distinguish the perfection of aromatic
ingredients, and that in animal substances it shall
evince a suspicious accuracy between tenderness
and putrefaction; above all, her olfactories should
be tremblingly alive to mustiness and empyreuma.
It is from the exquisite sensibility of her palate,
that we admire and judge of the cook ; from the
alliance between the olfactory and sapid organs
it will be seen, that their perfection is indispen-
Good manners have often made the fortune of
many, who have had nothing else to recommend
them : ill manners have as often marred the hopes
of those who have had every thing else to advance
Dinner tables are seldom sufficiently lighted, or
attended ; an active waiter will have enough to
do, to attend upon half a dozen good eaters : there
should be half as many candles as there are guests,
and their flame be about eighteen inches above
the table ; our foolish modern candelabras seem in-
tended to illuminate the ceiling, rather than to
give light- on the plates, &c. •
I am persuaded that no servant ever saved his
master sixpence, but he found it in the end in his
own pocket. — Cook''s Ora.
A surgeon may as well attempt to make an in-
cision with a pair of sheers, or open a vein with
an oyster knife, as a cook pretend to dress a din-
ner without proper tools. — Ibid.
When the pot is coming to a boil, there will al-
ways, from the cleanest meat and clearest water,
rise a scum to the top of it ; proceeding partly
from the foulness of the meat, and partly from the
water, this must be carefully taken off as soon as
it rises ; on this, depends the good appearance of
all boiled things. When you have scummed well,
put in some cold water, which will throw up the
rest of the scum. The oftener it is scummed, and
the cleaner the top of the water is kept, the clean-
er will be the meat. If let alone, it soon ])oi]s
down and sticks to the meat; which, instead of
looking delicately white and nice, will have that
coarse and filthy appearance we have too oft6n to
complain of, and the butcher and. poulterer be
blamed for the carlessness of the cook in not
skimming her pot.
in small families, we recommend block tin
saucepans, &c. as lightest, and safest; if proper
care is taken of them, and they are well dried af-
ter they are cleaned, they are by far the cheapest ;
the purchase of a new tin saucepan being little
more than the expense of tinning a copper one.
Let the young cook never forget, that cleanli-
ness is the chief cardinal virtue of the kitchen;
the first preparation for roasting is to take care
that the spit be properly cleaned with sand and
vwaler, nothing else. When it has been well
scoured with this, dry it with a clean cloth. If
spits are wiped clean, as soon as the meat is drawn
from them, and while they are hot, a very little
cleaning will be required. The less the spit is
passed through the meat the better, and before
you spit it, joint it properly, especially necks and
loins, that the carver may separate them easily
and neatly, and take especial care, it be evenly
balanced on the spit, that its motion may be regu-
lar, and the fire operate equally on each part of it.
A cook must be as particular to proportion her
fire to the business she has to do, as a chemist ; the
degree of heat most desirable for dressing the dif-
ferent sorts of food ought to be attended to with
the utmost precision.
A good cook is as anxiously attentive to the
appearance and colour of her roasts, as a court
beauty is to her complexion at a birlh-day ball.
Be very particular in frying, never to use any
oil, butter, lard, or drippings, but what is quite
clean, fresh, and free from salt. Any thing dirty^ ^^
spoils the look, any thing bad tasted or stale*,^^P>
spoils the flavour, and salt prevents its browning.
There is nothing in which the difference between
an elegant and an ordinary table is more seen, than
in the dressing of vegetables, more especially of
greens ;- they may be equally as fine at first, at
one place as at another; but their look and taste
are afterwards very difierent, entirely from the
careless way in which they have been cooked.
Unripe vegetables are as insipid and unwhole-
some as unripe fruits.
If you wish to have vegetables delicately clean,
put on your pot, make it-boil, put a little salt in it,
and skim it perfectly clean before you put in the
greens, &c. which should not be put in till the wa-
ter boils briskly ; the quicker (hey boil, the green-
er they will be ; when the vegetables sink, they
are generally done enough, if the water has been
constantly boiling. Take theni up immediately,
or they will lose their colour and goodness. Drain
the water from them thoroughly before you send
them to table. This branch of cookery requires
the most vigilant attention.
If vegetables are a minute or two too long over
the fire, they lose all their beauty and flavour.
Made dishes are nothing more than meat, poul-
try, or fish, stewed very gently till they are tender,
with a thickened sauce poured over them.
Be careful to trim off all the skin, gristle, &,c.
that will not be eaten, and shape handsomely and
of even thickness, the various articles which com-
pose your made dishes ; this is sadly neglected by
common cooks; only stew them till they are just
tender, and not do them to rags. Therefore, what
you prepare the day before it is to be eaten, do
not do quite enough the first day.
Woollen blankets or woollen clothes of any kind
a^ well as furs, may be preserved from moths by
sprinkling a little spirits of turpentine upon them,
in the drawers or boxes where they are deposited
during summer. The scent of the turpentine, on
the woollens or furs, is immediately removed on
their exposure to the air. Sheets of paper moist-
ened with spirits of turpentine above or below the
clothes, furs, &c. will have the etFect of keeping off
moths, but not so effectually as sprinkling.
When you open a bottle of catsup, essence of
anchovy, &c. throw away the old cork, and stop
it closeJy with a new cork that will fit it very tight
Use only the best superfine velvet taper corks.
Economy in corks is very unwise ; in order to
save a mere trifle, in the price of the cork, you run
the risk of losing the valuable article it is intended
tq preserve. It is a vulgar error that a bottle
must be well stopped, when the cork is forced
down even with the mouth of it ; this is a sure sign
that the cork is too small, and it should be re-
drawn and a larger one put in.
The papering of a room, when soiled in spots, as
often happens, may be cleaned by a piece of
brick loaf or biscuit, one or two days old. After
gently rubbing till the bread is soiled, the soiled
part of the bread should be chipped ofi", or a fresh
piece taken ; some caution is requisite not to in-
jure the fabric of the paper-hanging, or the figures